If you are looking for information about traumatic brain injury, if you want to know more about brain trauma, if you want to know the symptoms, if you want to get acquainted with the etiology that you want to know about the complications and symptoms, if you want to know the treatments and management strategies and the symptoms, we recommend that you read on.



Penetrating cranial traumas

What is TBI?

When and how TBI signs and symptoms appear

What are the symptoms of TBI in children?

What are the causes of TBI?


What are the acute brain diseases following TBI?

How can TBI be prevented?

How to prevent head injuries in children?




Traumatic brain injury or TBIs can cause severe blows to the head or skull due to blunt trauma.


Penetrating cranial traumas

A penetrating body that enters the brain tissue for any reason, such as a bullet hitting your skull and entering the brain tissue, or broken pieces of skull bone that enter the brain tissue can also be classified as TBI.

When mild TBI damage occurs, it temporarily affects your brain cells, but severe injuries are more critical and can be accompanied by severe bruising, severe scalp tears, heavy bleeding, and other physical injuries. Complications of severe injuries remain stable for a long time.

If these injuries are not prevented, if they are not diagnosed and treated in time, they can lead to other diseases in the long run and cause neurological problems and eventually cause the death of the infected person.


What is TBI?

Occurs when external mechanical forces cause your brain to malfunction. Brain injury and trauma usually result from severe blows to the head or neck or the whole body. Sometimes penetrating brain trauma occurs and leads to TBI, such as a bullet, or a broken piece of skull bone that enters brain tissue.

TBI, by any mechanism, causes your brain activity to become temporarily and permanently disrupted when more serious brain injuries and trauma have serious complications such as tissue rupture, bleeding, and bruising, and can be accompanied by physical damage. It is the tissue of your brain that causes serious complications and even death.

It must be said that sometimes the brain injuries caused by trauma and causing long-term complications, in addition to the physical effects and dependence of the person with auxiliary forces in everyday snakes, also cause a lot of psychological damage.


When and how TBI signs and symptoms appear

Some symptoms may occur immediately after the accident and after a blow to the head and neck, while others may show side effects in the days and weeks that follow.

The symptoms of a person with TBI will vary.

Symptoms can be mild or moderate to severe. Here are some more TBI symptoms.

Signs and symptoms after trauma occur after the accident and the symptoms will manifest themselves both physically and mentally and psychologically. Some symptoms, as we have said, appear immediately after the accident, and others take days and weeks to appear. so we want to further distinguish the symptoms and manifestations after mild TBIs and then moderate to severe RTBIs, and even those that cause cognitive and mental symptoms or are accompanied by sensory symptoms.

We review the symptoms in the following groups:


  • Physical symptoms and physical injuries caused by mild trauma

The first sign of loss of consciousness, which may last from a few seconds to a few minutes, is that the person may not lose consciousness but may have dizziness, lightheadedness, and confusion.

Headache, fatigue and dizziness Nausea and vomiting Speech disorders Urinary tract problems Lack of sleep or excessive sleep and imbalance in standing and walking.


  • Sensory symptoms

Sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound, sensory problems, change in clear sense of smell and ringing in the ears and diplopia.


  • Psychological and mental cognitive symptoms


  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Memory problem
  • Feeling of mood swings, such as depression and anxiety
  • Mood swings and instability of morals and behavior

Let's see what are the symptoms and manifestations of ordinary to severe traumatic brain injury?

These early symptoms appear in the first hours or the first days after the accident.


  • Physical symptoms
  • Loss of consciousness lasts from a few minutes to several hours
  • Persistent headaches or headaches that get worse
  • Convulsions
  • Frequent vomiting and recurrent nausea
  • Clear fluid flowing from the nose and ears
  • The difficulty in waking up ,This person falls asleep so deeply that he cannot be awakened
  • Weakness of the fingers or numbness of the fingers and lack of coordination of body organs


  • Cognitive symptoms Mental symptoms in moderate to severe TBIs
  • Continuous incomprehensible talking
  • Distress
  • aggression
  • Occurrence of other abnormal behaviors, that means those around you feel that the injured person has changed his personality
  • Coma and other disorders related to consciousness


What are the symptoms of TBI in children?

Infants and young children are not able to tell if they have a headache, sensory problems, or similar confusion and symptoms.

When a child suffers head or neck trauma or cranial injury or serious trauma to the whole body.

Injured children lose interest in playing with their favorite toys. They no longer have an interest in doing their favorite activities and games in the past. Your child is upset. You feel that your child is upset or in a low mood.

The child undergoes new food and nutritional changes. The child makes excuses. He has abnormal patterns of behavior that have never been seen before.

It does not have its previous attention and focus. The child's sleeping habits have changed. The child has a seizure that has not been seen before. Your child cries constantly and does not become silent.

Be sure to see your doctor in the following cases.

If a lot of force is applied to the neck and the whole body and behavioral changes are observed as a result, you should go to the emergency room. They will be considered as serious injuries and they will definitely need to go to the emergency room and be treated quickly until they are diagnosed.


What are the causes of TBI?

This injury usually follows a fall that affects the head, neck and body. The mechanism of the injury and the nature of the injury and the severity of the injury are important (severity of the injury).

How old is the injured person, has there been any other problem or disease in the brain?


  1. Falling from the bed, falling down the stairs in the bathroom and other cases are very common causes that should be considered especially in the elderly with movement disorders and in children.


  1. Vehicle accidents, car accidents, motorcycle accidents, bicycle accidents, pedestrian accidents.


  1. Violence, for example, domestic violence, child abuse, and other forms of violence. Shaking syndrome, which is very common in infants due to repeated and severe shaking of the baby. Sports injuries, such as high-impact blows in rugby, boxing ,football.

Baseball , Hockey , Skating is very common in these sports with traumatic skull injuries. The next cause of explosions are one of the causes of this problem, especially between military and emergency personnel and firefighters.

Which are very endangered.

It is said that the pressure wave caused by the explosion may pass through the brain dramatically and cause significant changes in brain function.

Severe bruises and injuries that occur after an explosion or fall somewhere following an explosion all play a role in the development of explosion-related TBI.


  1. Penetrating trauma, for example, from a bullet or a knife



Excessive complications may occur immediately after trauma. The more severe damages, the more severe and lasting the complications, Permanent changes will occur in different areas of a person's health.

  1. The first category of complications

Effects on consciousness are as follows:


A person who goes into a coma is not conscious and does not become aware of what is happening in the environment and does not respond to stimuli. Depending on which parts of the brain are severely damaged, after a few days to a few weeks, people may come out of a coma or enter a vegetative phase.

In the vegetative state, extensive damage to the brain has led to the vegetative state. The sufferer does not know what is going on around him and is not aware of what is going on, but he may sometimes open his eyes or sometimes make a sound or responds to stimuli or has movements but has no knowledge of what is going on around him.


Semi-conscious state

It is a state in which consciousness has changed drastically, but there is still some degree of awareness of the surroundings in the person. This is usually a transient state that a person goes from a coma to a vegetative state.


Brain death

A person suffering from brain death has no activity in his brain. A person whose brain death has been diagnosed and confirmed, if it is separated from the respiratory system, this separation will cause cardiac arrest in him, brain death is irreversible.


What are the physical complications following TBI?

  • Convulsions

Many people experience seizures.

After TBI, people have this experience only in the early stages, but sometimes some people can have this seizure for years to come.

Persistent post-traumatic seizures are called post-traumatic epilepsies

  • Hydrocephalus

The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain is called hydrocephalus. CFS is produced and secreted in spaces called the ventricles of the brain. Due to vascular problems, it cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream and accumulates in the brain. The penetration of internal musculature sometimes ruptures the vessel wall.

Injuries cause bacteria to enter the brain and reach the brain tissue, causing an infection. Meningitis can spread to other parts of the nervous system if left untreated.

  • Small and large blood vessel injuries

Intracranial arteries can be severely damaged following traumatic brain injury. Blood clots, strokes, and cerebrovascular accidents are problems after TBI.

  • Headache

Persistent post-traumatic headaches are common. Although the trauma is more severe, the headaches are more severe and prolonged. They may occur up to a week after the injury and last for months.

  • Vertigo

Another complication is dizziness that many people with TBI experience.

  • Damage to cranial nerves

Depending on which nerve is damaged, it will be associated with the following problems:

  • Facial muscle weakness Loss of facial sensation due to facial nerve damage
  • Olfactory problems due to olfactory nerve damage
  • Taste problems
  • Blindness of vision in the field of vision
  • Dizziness, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, etc.


  • Mental problems

People with severe brain problems and injuries will experience changes in their mental cognitive skills and personality, including memory disorders, learning Disorders ,Judgment Disorder ,the difficulty of focusing and concentrating on mental tasks, such as solving a problem, interferes with planning, decision-making, starting and finishing tasks and organizing things in them at the same time.


  • Communication complications

Communication problems are very common in people who have experienced TBI. These problems can cause problems and mistakes in interactions with those around them. Cognitive problems include difficulty speaking, writing difficulties, comprehension or writing problems, inability to organize ideas, and Thoughts and weakness in following conversations.


  • Social complications

Inability to choose the topic he / she wants to talk about. Difficulty in understanding non-verbal cues, difficulty in beginning and ending a conversation, and inability to use the muscles used in word building. It means getting dysarthria.

  • Emotional effects:

Following TBA, we mention the following:

  • Instability of mood
  • Bad temper
  • Suffering early
  • Get angry quickly
  • Severe insomnia and lack of compassion


  • Sensory effects

Among the sensory complications, we mention the following:

    • Constant ringing of the ears
    • Binoculars
    • Blind spot in the visual field Visual problems
    • Confusion of light head
    • Skin problems
    • Feeling of abnormal taste in the mouth
    • Feeling bad or losing smell
    • Lack of eye coordination


What are the acute brain diseases following TBI?

Researchers say that multiple brain injuries increase the risk of developing brain diseases. This risk is unpredictable for people, but today, extensive studies have been organized on the causes and manner of traumatic brain injuries and their relationship to brain diseases. Acute brain disorders cause That the function of the brain is lost and the vocal cords of the brain are disrupted.

Among the diseases, and brain disorders, we mention the following:



Parkinson's disease is caused by a disorder in the glands at the base of the brain. It is a progressive disease with movement problems in the abdomen and a slow tremor at the beginning of walking and then a rapid acceleration and muscle stiffness or spasticity.


Alzheimer's disease

First memory is lost and then thinking skills:

Dementia can be associated with multiple blows to the head in sports such as boxing, and trauma can cause symptoms such as dementia and movement problems. One of the most common causes of dementia is vascular dermatitis.

Alzheimer's disease is actually a form of dementia.


How can TBI be prevented?

1. Use a seat belt and use cars equipped with controlled and standard airbags.

2. Children should always sit in the back seat on their own chair.

3. Avoid alcohol and drugs while driving and when traveling in high-risk environments. Next is to wear a helmet when riding a skate bike.

It is emphasized that when playing games such as baseball, skating and snowboarding, riding and active sports, it is always necessary to consider a standard protector for your head.


How to prevent head injuries in children?

• Use standard soft flooring in the child's playground for them.

• Use standard bathroom flooring for children.

• We must install proper protection on the windows of kindergartens.

• Collect carpets from the stairs.

• It’s important to do not let your children go to the balcony to play alone and do not use emergency stairs to play.



TBIs are a problem that is very common even in young people. Unfortunately, people who suffer from it can suffer from serious physical, psychological and mental problems for a long time and even for life. We mentioned that if there are any signs and symptoms of TBI, be sure to contact the agency immediately, even if the accident is mild.

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