Lung recovery after pneumonia
 
If you have pneumonia and want to know about pneumonia recovery course.
If you are recovering from pneumonia.
We recommend that you read more:
 

What you will read next:
 
Introduction
What is the definition of pneumonia?
What are the ways the infection is transmitted to the lungs?
What are the effects of age in determining the type of pneumonia?
Clinical signs and manifestations
What are the features and characteristics of non-acquired pneumonia syndrome?
Diagnosis
treatment
 


 
 
Introduction
Lung tissue infection, which in medicine is called the lung parenchyma, is called pneumonia and is actually an infection of the lower respiratory tract.
Infection and inflammation of the lung parenchyma, which may be unilateral or bilateral, is called pneumonia.
The part of the lung that becomes inflamed and infected will be filled with fluid. The fluid contains white blood cells that have accumulated in the area to fight infection.
In the following, in order to have a better understanding of recovery for Pneumonia, we will talk about the definition of pneumonia symptoms and its brief treatment.
 

What is the definition of pneumonia?
Lung parenchymal infection, which can be caused by a variety of infectious agents such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, and parasites, is called pneumonia.
Doctors say that in 30% of cases the infectious agent
Pneumonia is not identified.
It is said that the lower respiratory tract should normally be completely sterile in a healthy human being. Sterility is due to the fact that a special system called the mucociliary system, which consists of the respiratory cilia and their mucous secretions, with its purposeful upward movements, will clean and so-called sweep the contaminants from the wall of the lower respiratory tract. In a healthy person, because these movements are normal in the lower respiratory tract, germs cannot implant in the lungs and multiply.
Remember that people who have a disorder of the cough reflex, or their mucociliary system, or the respiratory cilia system, and the secretion of mucous mucus is defective, or have dementia and cognitive disorders, are more likely to develop lung infection. 

 

What are the ways the infection is transmitted to the lungs?
Problems with the Mucociliary system of the lower respiratory tract.
Another way is to get the germs in the air into your lungs:
It is said that the smaller the size of the airborne particles, the more likely it is that the particles will reach the alveolus of the lungs and cause inflammation and infection there.
Pneumonias used with Legionella and histoplasma seek to inhale infectious airborne particles. 
Another way is to spread through the blood, such as golden staph that are passed through blood catheters. For example, people who are addicted to injections are more likely to get a golden staph infection, or people who have a long-term venous catheter get a golden staph infection, the infection enters their bloodstream and reaches the lungs, causing Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.
Another w#ay is infection of the lung tissue and the spread of infection from the tissues adjacent to the lung.


What are the infectious agents that cause pneumonia?
What areas does the person live in, what are the conditions, what is his / her job, where does he / she travel, does he / she deal with animals or not, As well as who he/ she is in contact with, and what is the state of his/ her immune system also plays a role in determining the infectious agent of the lungs.
For the normal part of society, the most common causes of pneumonia that cause community-acquired pneumonia are:
Pneumococcus
Haemophilus influenzae
Chlamydia
Legionella
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Another category of infections is called hospital-acquired or hospital-acquired infections. Gram-negative intestinal bacilli and Pseudomonas are responsible for more than 50% of hospital-acquired pneumonias. More than 10% of these infections are caused by the bacterial infectious agent that causes golden staph. Anaerobes are the cause of the disease in 30% of cases. Community-acquired pneumonia is called CAP and hospital-acquired pneumonia is called HAP.
 

What are the effects of age in determining the type of pneumonia?
Under six months, effective and common factors are:
Chlamydia trachomatis
And
RSV
From 6 months to 5 years Haemophilus influenzae
In young adults Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae in the elderly with chronic diseases
And Legionella pneumophila
Moraxella catarrhalis which we refer them here
Another case is the situation of the infected person in the seasons, for example, in winter, the prevalence of influenza is higher.
When a person develops pneumonia with the flu virus in the winter, favorable conditions arise for a bacterial infection, with pneumococcus or Staphylococcus aureus or Haemophilus influenzae, all three of which are bacteria, to be added to a lung tissue infection.


 
Clinical signs and manifestations
Let's see what clinical symptoms people with community-acquired pneumonia have:
Society was divided into two categories, typical and atypical. In the following, we want to explain the characteristics and symptoms of both categories to you. 
typical Community-acquired pneumonia CAP has the following characteristics:  
These pneumonias are accompanied by a sudden onset of fever and Their coughs are accompanied by purulent sputum, and people also experience chest pain and pleural pain or pleurisy. 
Such a person with this disease has certain signs and symptoms on examination due to the density caused by inflammation and infection in the lungs.
Patients with community-acquired pneumonia syndrome are said to be infected with bacteria such as: 
nematodes
Haemophilus influenzae
And anaerobes 


 
What are the features and characteristics of non-acquired pneumonia syndrome?
Symptoms will usually last longer. The cough is dry and there is an obvious extrapulmonary symptoms in these people.
Extrapulmonary symptoms in these people include muscle aches, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, headache, and sore throat. 
Interestingly, people who have the atypical Community-acquired pneumonia, despite the fact that there are few pulmonary findings in the examination and hearing of the lungs, if we take a chest imaging of them, drastic changes can be seen in their photos.
atypical Community-acquired pneumonia can be caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Other factors that cause this cap include:
Legionella
Chlamydia
And oral anaerobes
Pneumococcus
And Pneumocystis carinii.
If the cause is mycoplasma, it may have skin lesions on the skin called migratory multiforme erythema, which is a blistering lesion. It may also lead to encephalitis and myelitis.
If the fungus causes pneumonia, a specific skin rash called erythema nodosum develops. It is said that hoarseness and sore throat and pathological respiratory sounds is more common when pneumonia is caused by Chlamydia. 
Also, the viruses that cause pneumonia can cause atypical symptoms.
In these cases, that pneumonia is caused by a virus and has atypical symptoms.
There is no fever.
There is a dry cough.
But the extrapulmonary symptoms are more pronounced.
Another point is that if, influenza virus, measles virus, chicken pox, rsv virus, or cytomegalovirus cause pneumonia, they will impair the function of the ciliary and mucosal systems in the lungs and the person is more prone to secondary bacterial pneumonia.
Viral pneumonias are with very pronounced extrapulmonary manifestations are fever, chills, and dry cough, but when a bacterial infection builds up on them, the person's condition suddenly worsens and persists for a long time. Another point is that people treated with corticosteroids are very, very prone to tuberculosis and pneumonia with some fungi and parasites.


 
Diagnosis
When trying to diagnose pneumonia, doctors usually look at the symptoms and manifestations, they hear the person's history, as well as the history of the activity, social presence and hospitalization to find out the possible cause of the infection. 
After that, blood culture, throat culture, chest X-ray, blood cell count, and also in order to determine the causative agent, the physician has to use invasive methods, such as aspirating the secretions of the lower and lower extremities by trans-tracheal or trans-thoracic aspiration.


 
treatment
It is said that in the first step, when a person presents with a diagnosis of pneumonia, the initial experimental and fully empirical treatment begins in people who are healthy in general health and have community-acquired pneumonia.
They usually recover within four days of starting treatment and the fever goes away.
Some physicians describe a period in which symptoms improve after the start of treatment as two to four days. We have to say that if we take a chest x-ray at this time, we will see that the chest and lungs are still involved, so delayed clearance of the chest x-ray will not be related to the improvement of the person's symptoms.
Antimicrobial treatment should be chosen, For example, in the cap, choose an antibiotic that works against the most likely germs and the most common germs in that age group and that social conditions.
After choosing the right drug, treatment is very effective, and in choosing the right drug, pay attention to the various factors that we mention in the following:
Factors that affect drug selection include:
Illness severity
Necessity of hospitalization of the patient, Age of the patient, General health, Underlying diseases such as kidney failure, Liver failure, Malnutrition, Congestive heart disease.
First Division:
If the patient is under 6 years old, ie the patient is under 6 years old with community-acquired pneumonia and has an underlying disease, then the treatments are as follows: 
The treatment is started with Azithromycin, When the patient is young and outpatient treatment is to be performed and the patient is not hospitalized and has no underlying disease and has typical symptoms and manifestations, oral penicillin and amoxicillin can be used.
Because in these cases, pneumococcus is the most common cause and responds to these drugs.
Sometimes a new antibiotic called cephalexin or an old antibacterial drug called doxycycline can be used.
The important point is that it is better to go for doxycycline only when the patient for any reason could not tolerate Azithromycin or penicillin or amoxicillin.
erythromycin (tab 200, 400 mg, susp 200 mg / 5mg) 500 mg / QID

penicillin V (tab 500 mg, susp 125,250 mg / 5ml) 500mg / QID 7-10 days

amoxicillin (cap 250, 500 mg, susp 125, 250 mg / 5ml) 500mg / TDS 7-10 days

doxycycline (cap 100mg) 100mg / BD
The second group is people who are over 60 years old, or have no underlying disease, or are over 60 years old and have an underlying disease, and now the cap in these people should be treated as follows:

The first line of treatment is second-generation cephalosporins as well as cotrimoxazole. If chlamydia or Legionella infection is suspected, erythromycin should be added, so the treatment is as follows:
Co-trimoxazole (Bactrim: tb, amp 480mg, ped. Tab. 120 mg, susp 240 mg)

20mg / kg / TMP / day / QID

co-amoxiclav (Augmentin: susp 156, 312.5 mg / 5ml, tab 375, 625 mg) 500 mg / TDS
If the adult was young and had atypical manifestations, erythromycin and doxycycline should be used.
If the cause is mycoplasma infection, the course of treatment is two to three weeks, because the length of treatment is necessary to prevent recurrence and It can lead to a longer treatment.
The following groups will need to be hospitalized when they develop community-acquired pneumonia:
 
People over the age of 65 People with immunosuppressive diseases, People with mental retardation, People with aspiration, People with malnutrition, People with alcoholism, as well as people that their vital signs have Systolic blood pressure that is less than 90 mm Hg and respiratory rate is more than 30 beats per minute.
If people with community-acquired pneumonia had a white blood cell count of less than 5000, if their heart rate was above 140 beats per minute, If there were people who did not improve despite initial outpatient treatment, and people who could not take oral medications for any reason, Or had complications such as arthritic abscess, meningeal involvement, or meningitis, inner membrane involvement of the heart, or endocarditis; Also, if there are people whose doctors suspect they may be infected with anaerobes and other bacteria that are less common, they must be hospitalized and receive injectable non-oral antibiotics.

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