Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

 

If you or those around you have bladder cancer and you want to know about it, if you want to know what are the symptoms and causes of bladder cancer without invading the muscle and how is it treated?

We recommend that you read on. In this article, we want to make you more familiar with bladder cancer.

 

 

What you will read next:

 

Introduction

Familiarity with the bladder

Epidemiology

What are the types of tumors and bladder cancers?

How does bladder cancer start and spread?

Classification of other bladder cancers

Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer

What causes bladder cancer?

What are the contributing factors to bladder cancer?

Diagnosis

Staging of bladder cancer

Treatment

What are the risk factors for bladder tumors?

Methods of preventing bladder cancer

Concluding remarks

 

 

 

Introduction

It is said that if cancerous and malignant cells are located on the inner surface of the bladder wall, Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is occurring.

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is called the most common type of bladder cancer and it is said that most people with this type of bladder cancer have a good prognosis and do not die.

 

Familiarity with the bladder

The bladder is a hollow organ located in the lower pelvis. It has flexible muscle walls and can stretch to hold urine and expel urine by squeezing it. When urinating, the muscles in the bladder wall contract and urine is passed out of the bladder through the urethra. When cells grow and multiply in the bladder wall without planning and unrestrained, they can form tumors, and over time the tumor invades different parts of the body.

 

Epidemiology

According to annual statistics, forty-five thousand men and seventeen thousand women are diagnosed with bladder tumors, but what are the specific statistics about bladder tumors without muscle invasion?

Statistics say it is seventy-five percent.

All bladder cancers and tumors are non-invasive to the muscle, and metastasis and distant invasion are very rare in these people. The prognosis for this tumor is good.

About 30 to 80 percent of cases may recur, and one to forty-five percent may progress to an invasive muscle lesion. This progression usually occurs within five years of the initial tumor diagnosis.

 

What are the types of tumors and bladder cancers?

  1. The first type: transmission cell bladder cancer

It is the most common type of bladder cancer and is non-invasive to the muscle and originates in the transfer cells in the inner layer of the bladder.

These cells are cells that deform without damaging the tissue when it is stretched.

  1. The second type: squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder

It is a rare cancer that starts in thin, flat squamous cells and usually develops after a long-term infection and long-term bladder irritation.

  1. The third type: Adenocarcinoma of the bladder

Is this type of cancer one of the rare cancers and begins when glandular cells in the bladder wall cause cancer due to long-term stimulation and long-term inflammation of the bladder wall. These cells are actually glandular cells that secrete mucus into the body.

 

How does bladder cancer start and spread?

The bladder wall has several layers, and each layer is made up of different cells. Most bladder cancers begin inside the inner layer of the bladder, called the Transitional epithelial layer and transitional cells, and this cancer grows through the other layers of the bladder and may grow and multiply outwards. The more it goes outwards, the higher the stage of the cancer and, in other words, the more advanced it is and the more difficult it is to treat. As time goes on, the cancer may appear outside the bladder and invade nearby structures. It may also infect nearby lymph nodes. also, invasion to this area, like invasion to the lymph nodes around the bones, lungs, and liver, is also seen in cancer that has reached and spread to the muscle.

 

Classification of other bladder cancers

In this classification, bladder cancers are described based on the extent of their spread to the bladder wall. In this classification, we come across the following two categories:

  1. The first category is Non-invasive bladder cancers: That is, tumors that remain only on the surface of the transitional epithelial layer and have not reached the muscular layer of the bladder wall.

 

  1. The second type is invasive and invasive cancers: Cancers invade the deeper layer of the bladder wall, that is, they penetrate the muscle layer and are more likely to spread and become more advanced and more difficult to treat.

The most common type of bladder tumor is sometimes described as superficial or non-invasive and muscular. In fact, these tumors are invasive tumors that do not reach to the main muscle layer of the bladder.

 

Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer

  • Blood in the urine
  • Painful urination
  • Urgent need to urinate
  • urinary incontinence
  • back ache
  • stomach ache
  • Frequent urination

are the common symptoms in people with bladder tumors. Many people with bladder cancer can have blood on their urine but do not experience painful urination, and there are some symptoms that can be seen in people with other malignancies.

For example, excessive fatigue, weight loss and bone pain. These cases usually indicate disease at higher stages, in other words, tumors are more advanced.

 

What causes bladder cancer?

It is not yet clear what is the definitive cause of bladder wall cell carcinoma. In fact, bladder cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow out of control and multiply rapidly and uncontrollably, But to justify what can cause bladder cancer, it is best to look at the next section where we look at the factors that contribute to bladder tumors.

 

What are the contributing factors to bladder cancer?

In this section, we want to say which people are actually more at risk for bladder cancer and malignant bladder tumors. We will mention these cases below.

Tobacco use and smoking is said to increase the risk of bladder cancer. Smoking actually causes fifty percent of bladder cancers in men and women.

Aside from smoking as the most common and main contributing factor to malignant bladder tumor, other factors are as follows:

  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Low fluid intake
  • Chronic bladder infections
  • Chronic inflammation of the bladder
  • Being white
  • Being a man
  • Old age: Most bladder tumors occur in people over the age of fifty-five
  • Have a history of previous radiation therapy to the pelvic area
  • Having previous chemotherapy with a drug called cytoxan
  • Having an unhealthy, high-fat diet
  • Having a positive family history of bladder cancer

 

Diagnosis

After a history and necessary examinations, your doctor will use the following methods to suit your condition.

  • Urine sample analysis:

Internal examinations, such as a finger exam or a Finger rectal examination, can look for lumps that may indicate cancer growth.

  • A cystoscope in which a doctor inserts a narrow tube with a camera into the ducts to see inside the bladder.
  • CT scan or use simple X-ray imaging
  • IVP
  • A biopsy, in which a doctor inserts a small instrument through the urethra, and takes a small sample of suspicious tissue of the bladder and sends it to a lab for testing.

 

Staging of bladder cancer

Stage 0: Bladder cancer does not spread from the inner layer of the bladder.

Stage 1: The bladder tumor has spread to the inner layer of the bladder but has not reached the bladder muscle layer.

Stage 2: The bladder tumor has invaded and spread to the bladder muscle layer.

Stage 3: Bladder cancer has invaded the tissues around and near the bladder.

Stage 4: The bladder tumor has a distant invasion.

 

treatment

Treatment depending on the type and stage of the bladder cancer, the symptoms and general health of the person are adopted.

Treatment of stage zero and stage one: In this stage, surgery may be performed to remove the tumor from the bladder.

Chemotherapy and immunotherapy may be given, which is a drug that causes the immune system to attack cancer cells.

Stage two and stage three treatments may include the following:

The doctor may remove part of the bladder and perform chemotherapy. He or she may remove all of the bladder and perform a radical cystectomy, creating a new way for urine to leave the body. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy may be performed that shrinks the tumor before surgery. He or she may also use only chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy to kill the cancer cells that remain after surgery to prevent them from coming back.

Stage four treatment includes the following:

Non-surgical chemotherapy that is used only to relieve symptoms and increase a person's life expectancy.

Complete removal of the bladder and surrounding lymph nodes and creating a surgical route for the urine to leave the body.

Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy and Immunotherapy after surgery to eliminate tumor residue or relieve symptoms and prolong life.

 

What are the risk factors for bladder tumors?

Race and ethnicity, As we have said, white races are more at risk of developing bladder tumors than colored skin people. Older age, most bladder tumors are diagnosed over the age of fifty-five, chronic bladder irritation, inflammation and chronic bladder infections, and genetics and family history, congenital defects in the bladder and urinary system, and a personal history of other urinary tract cancers or history Family history of bladder cancer.

The above risk factors are factors that cannot be changed, but the following risk factors are factors that can be changed, these factors include: smoking, using certain medications or herbal supplements, drinking water containing arsenic, or drinking less fluids.

 

Methods of preventing bladder cancer

At the beginning of the article, we said that doctors still do not know what is the main cause of bladder cancer, so it may not be preventable in all cases, but according to the known factors and risk factors and high-risk behaviors, by observing the following points the risk of bladder cancer can be reduced:

  • Drink plenty of fluids and water
  • Avoid exposure to carcinogens
  • Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
  • Do not smoke and quit smoking

 

Concluding remarks

Bladder cancer is a cancer that can be divided into two general types, invasive and non-invasive.

Treatment of this cancer depends on factors such as:

  • Tumor size
  • Tumor type
  • Tumor location
  • The overall health of the person

Surgery to remove the accompanying cancerous mass and chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are the mainstays of treatment.

Sometimes cancer is so advanced that it is impossible to perform many interventions for treatment, and the medical team only performs measures that allow the person to survive with fewer symptoms, however, it should be noted that those bladder tumors that have not invaded the inhibitory muscle, their patients have a very good survival and prognosis, and generally will not die of this cancer.

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