Types of lung cancer

 

Types of lung cancer

 

Lung cancer is one of the most malignant cancers and the leading cause of death for men and women around the word. People who smoke and people who are exposed to secondhand smoke have a higher risk of lung cancer in both groups. If you have recently been diagnosed with lung cancer or have questions about the type of lung cancer you have, in this article we will describe the types of lung cancer.

 

 

Who is at risk for lung cancer?

What are the symptoms of lung cancer?

What are the types of lung cancer?

 

 

 

 

Who is at risk for lung cancer?

The following factors play a role in lung cancer:

 

Age:

Lung cancer is more common in the elderly, and lung cancer is rarely seen in people under the age of 40.

In other words, people over the age of 40 are more likely to get lung cancer than people under the age of 40.

 

Tobacco:

The most common cause of lung cancer is smoking. Smoking causes a huge amount of toxic substances to enter the lungs. Smoking cigarettes is the most important cause of lung cancer.

 

The risk of developing a type of lung cancer called SCLC is very rare in non-smokers (people who do not smoke tobacco).

Lung cancer is also more common among smokers who have smoked longer or who smoke more daily.

 

Tobacco consumption:

Inhaling tobacco alone can inject more than 7,000 chemicals into the body of people who use cigarettes, pipes and hookahs.

The important point is that in addition to tobacco users (cigarettes and pipes, etc.), people who are exposed to cigarette and pipe smoke will also be more at risk of lung cancer than other people in the community.

 

We remind you that types of tobacco called Low Tar or Light cigarette also increase the risk of lung cancer as much as regular cigarettes. Because Menthol cigarette contains menthol, it causes a deep breath and increases the risk of lung cancer more than regular cigarettes.

 

Facing radon:

Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer.

 

Facing asbestos:

People who work in mines, textile factories, etc. are at risk for lung cancer, if they are smokers, the risk of infection will be much higher.

 

Exposure to other carcinogens:

  • Radioactive radiation such as uranium.
  • Inhalation of beryllium, arsenic, cadmium, silica, vinyl chloride, nickel compounds, mustard gas and chloromethyl ether .
  • Gasoline .

 

Family history of lung cancer

It is not yet clear whether inhaling marijuana and talc in cosmetics can also increase the risk of lung cancer.

 

What are the symptoms of lung cancer?

Lung cancer does not have any specific symptoms in the early stages, but we will see the following symptoms as the disease progresses:

 

  • Prolonged cough, especially in smokers
  • Cough accompanied by blood
  • Recurrent lung infections
  • Chest pain when coughing or taking deep breaths
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Prolonged coughs that get worse over time

A cancerous mass in the lung takes about three to six months to double in size, so it takes years for a malignant lung mass to become large enough to be seen on a plain X-ray of the chest.

 

What are the types of lung cancer?

The most common classification for different types of lung cancer is based on findings under a microscope in cancerous tissue.

 

The reason why scientists have distinguished the two general categories of lung cancer is that each type of tumor is different in how it grows, develops, spreads, and is treated, so it is important to determine the type of lung cancer for proper treatment. These two major categories in the classification of lung cancers are:

 

  • small cell lung cancers or SCLC for short:

Smoking is one of the most important factors in causing this type of lung cancer.

This type makes up about ten to fifteen percent of all lung cancers.

 

SCLC:

It is the most invasive type of lung cancer that grows rapidly.

This type of lung tumor spreads very quickly to areas and organs farther from the lung (in other words, early metastases are very common in this type of lung cancer).

Many people with SCLC are diagnosed by the medical staff when, unfortunately, the tumor has metastasized extensively.

 

There are two types of sclc tumors:

  • small cell carcinoma or oat cell cancer:

The cells of this tumor are flat under a microscope and their cytoplasmic contents are very low.

 

This tumor often develops inside the bronchi and grows rapidly and spreads through the lymph.

 

  • combined small cell carcinoma

This tumor is a multiphasic mass. In fact, under the microscope, a series of transformed cells can be seen, among them, a mass of small lung cell carcinomas has emerged.

 

In general, small cell lung cancers are the most invasive and deadly type of lung cancer.

 

Signs:

Fatigue, chest pain, loss of appetite and weight, bloody cough, bloody sputum, and shortness of breath are symptoms of this cancer.

 

Treatment:

Treatment for small cell lung cancer usually does not involve surgery. Surgery may be possible only in some cases with small, limited tumors. But the most common treatment is chemotherapy and chest radiation therapy. For people who cannot get radiotherapy, chemotherapy alone will be a treatment option. Sometimes immunotherapy options such as Atezolizomab or Durvalumab are used.

 

In patients who do not have the necessary physical conditions for chemotherapy, doctors use palliative and supportive care methods to relieve respiratory problems, reduce pain, and so on.

 

Prognosis:

The five-year overall survival of patients with small cell lung carcinoma is about six percent. About twenty-seven percent of patients who have a localized lung tumor without metastasis will survive until the next five years when they are diagnosed.

 

  • Non small cell lung, abbreviated NSCLC

They are the most common type of lung cancer.

 

In stages of this type of cancer, treatments can help to improve the patient's condition.

 

Smokers, as well as people who stay in smoky environments for long periods of time, are more likely to develop nsclc lung cancer.

 

There are three different types of nsclc, which we will explain below:

 

Pulmonary adenocarcinoma:

The most common type of lung cancer is lung adenocarcinoma.

Both smokers and non-smokers can get this lung tumor (the most common lung tumor in both smokers and nonsmokers)

The most common lung tumor that can occur in people under the age of forty-five is lung adenocarcinoma.

The growth of this tumor is much slower compared to other types of lung tumors.

 

Treatment:

Treatment in this group of patients will be as follows:

If a person has a diseased lung and the other lung is healthy and the tumor has not spread to other parts of the body, which it means that the tumor is without metastasis, surgery and chemotherapy will be part of the treatment plan.

 

If the tumor does not metastasize but surgery is not possible for any reason, we use radiotherapy and chemotherapy together. There are different types of lung cancer surgery methods that the surgical technique is determined by the doctor.

 

Immunotherapy and tract therapies can be used in a variety of lung cancers that have specific genetic mutations.

In stage 4 lung cancer, which is a tumor with metastasis, chemotherapy is the only treatment option.

 

Prognosis:

The surviving chance of a person with lung adenocarcinoma in stage one, with five years after diagnosis, is seventy to eighty percent.

If there is an advanced tumor without metastasis, the chance of survival until the next five years is lower that 30 percent.

In patients with distant metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, the probability is less than five percent.

 

squamous cell carcinoma)Lung-scc:

Or epidermoid lung tumor:

This type of cancer has the following characteristics:

A quarter (about 30 percent) of all lung tumors are of this type.

Among all the types of lung NSCLCs, this type is strongly related to smoking.

This tumor develops in the innermost layer of the airway wall of the lung.

This type of lung tumor mainly occurs in the central parts of the lungs.

Characteristic of this lung tumor on imaging is the presence of a cavity full of gas or fluid that is seen inside the suspected mass of the lung.

This type of lung tumor has the ability to spread and metastasize to the liver, bone and adrenal glands.

 

Treatment:

Treatment of this tumor according to the stage of the tumor in each person is different, and includes one or more of the following methods:

  • Surgery:

It is only possible in the early stages of a tumor and when the lung tumor has not metastasized and spread to other parts of the body and can be completely removed.

 

  • Radiotherapy:

In lung scc according to the patient's condition (EBRT) is used. In this type of radiotherapy, radiation therapy is

Performed from outside the body.

 

  • chemotherapy:

Cisplatin or carboplatin or a combination of these drugs with other therapeutic agents is used for chemotherapy in patients with lung disease. For example, the combination of cisplatin with gemcitabine can be mentioned.

In patients with lung metastases, medication can be given

Combined Necitumumab (portrazza) with the above two drugs.

Immunotherapy and methods used to inhibit the proliferation of vessels that supply tumor cells are other types of treatment for this type of lung cancer.

 

Prognosis:

Fifty percent of lung scc patients who are in (stage one) will survive for five years; the probability that a patient with metastatic scc tumor (stage four) will live for five years will be about two to four percent.

 

  • Larg cell lung carcinoma

About ten percent of all lung tumors are of this type.

The growth and spread of this type of lung cancer is very fast and this makes it difficult to treat.

Tobacco and smoking cigarettes are strongly associated with the development of this cancer.

This tumor is sometimes called an undifferentiated lung tumor.

Affected people usually have weight loss and non-sputum cough.

Andy Kaufman, an American comedian, is one of the famous people who had this type of lung tumor.

 

Treatment:

For the treatment of patients with this type of lung tumor who have not yet metastasized (stages one, two, and three): The best treatment would be a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. If the patient has metastasized (stage four) chemotherapy will be used alone.

The survival of patients with this tumor is about ten and a half months.

This tumor is sometimes called bronchial alveolar carcinoma.

Prolonged and chronic cough with bloody sputum is a symptom of this type of lung cancer.

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