The human lungs are almost double-shaped cones located on both sides of the space inside the chest. The lungs give life to the body's cells by oxygenating the blood pumped by the heart. The left lung is slightly smaller than our right lung. The highest part of the lungs is called the 'lung peak', which is slightly higher than the first rib. The nerves, blood vessels, lymph nodes and branches of the airways (bronchi) enter each lung from the umbilicus and get divided into smaller parts inside the lung tissue.

The bronchi that carry air from the trachea into the lungs are divided into smaller branches called bronchioles, and air gases are exchanged in the branches of these bronchioles.

A very thin membrane called the pleural membrane covers the entire outer surface of our lungs. Another membrane, just like it, encloses the inside of the chest, which normally secretes very little fluid tolet the lungs to expand and contract without friction. What you will read next:

How to recognize the symptoms of lung diseases:
When to see a doctor?

Recognizing the symptoms of lung diseases:

Symptoms of lung disease appear differently in different people. Symptoms of lung disease generally include the following:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain (cardiac bread and non-cardiac)
  • sputum
  • Bloody sputum (hemoptysis)
  • Bruising of the lips and mucous membranes of the mouth
  • Fever
  • Clubbing
  • Sleep problems
  • Daily fatigue



Pulmonary diseases:

You can see lung diseases in the following categories:

  • Asthma: Asthma itself has different types, which are divided into the following:

    • Exercise-related asthma
    • Seasonal asthma
    • Occupational asthma
    • Pediatric asthma
    • Adult asthma
  • Other lung diseases:

    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Emphysema
    • Acute bronchitis
    • Cystic fibrosis
  • Diseases of the air sacs (alveoli):

    • Pneumonia
    • Viral
    • COVID19
    • Bacterial
    • Pulmonary tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
    • Emphysema
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • Interstitial lung diseases:

    • Idiopathic pneumoconiosis
  • Granulomatoses:

    • Sarcoidosis
    • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    • Infections
  • Occupational Exposures:

    • Asbestosis
    • Silicosis
    • Heavy metals (hard metal)
    • Coal dust (coal dust)
  • Autoimmune diseases:

    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Sjögren syndrome
    • Scleroderma
    • Dermatomyositis
    • Polymyositis
  • Response to medications, Some lung problems occur in response to certain medications, including:

    • Nitrofurantoin
    • Amiodarone
    • Methotrexate
    • Smoking
    • Drugs for Vacuities
  • Vascular diseases of the lungs:

    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pleural diseases:

    • Pleural effusion
    • Hemothorax
    • Pneumothorax
    • Mesothelioma
  • Chest wall lung diseases:

    • Obesity and pulmonary edema reduction syndrome
  • Neuromuscular diseases:

    • Myasthenia Gravis
    • ALS
    • Gyllenhaal
  • Lung tumors: These tumors are divided into the following two types:

    • Small cell lung cancer
    • Non-small cell lung cancer

       Small or non-small cell lung cancer may include:

  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Bronchi alveolar cancer
  • Classical lung adenocarcinoma
  • Squamous cell tumor
  • Large cell lung carcinoma
  • Metastases

When to see a doctor?

If you have any of the following symptoms, see your specialist or pulmonologist:

  • Respiratory allergies
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Tracheitis
  • Wegener disease
  • Niemann–Pick disease
  • Night epilepsy
  • Sleep attacks

It is noted that many cases of gastroesophageal reflux disease are associated with aspiration of gastric secretions which can cause coughing and chronic discharge from the back of the throat.




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