The heart is a four-chambered organ located between the two lungs and inside the chest. In the right and left halves, the cavities at the top are called the atrium and the cavities below the atrium are called the ventricles.

Blood collected from all parts of the body travels to the right atrium through two large veins and flows into the right atrium when the heart is ready to receive incoming blood (diastole). There is a tricuspid valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Blood enters the right ventricle through the right atrium through this valve. In the systolic phase when the ventricular muscle is contracted, blood enters the pulmonary artery after passing through the pulmonary valve. The pulmonary artery gets divided into right and left branches and each branch enters one of the lungs. In this way, the oxygen collected in our lungs by inhaling enters the bloodstream. Oxygenated blood flows through the four veins (in the diastolic phase) into the left atrium. Between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the bicuspid valve or mitral valve, where the blood passes through to flow into the left ventricle.

Now it is time for the aortic valve (which is between the left ventricle and the aortic artery) to open by contracting the thick muscles of the left ventricular wall and pressing it into the largest artery in the body, the aorta. Now, the branches that separate along the aortic pathway carry blood to all parts of the body.

The blood that enters the aorta from the left ventricle is called the cardiac output. correct functionality of cardiac is very important since in determines the healthiness of heart function and also for assessing heart diseases. What you will read:


Anatomy of the heart

Types of heart disease

When to see a doctor?

Classification of cardiac disorders in infants


Anatomy of the heart:

The heart is made up of three layers which from inside to outside are:

  • Endocardium (thin layer inside the heart)
  • Myocardium (heart muscle)

  • Pericardium

The heart has a pacemaker, which is located above the right atrium. The wave of contraction signals and pulses is propagated by this pacemaker to reach a part that is above the ventricles. In this part, the pulse wave waits for a while and then enters into the ventricles and the wall between the ventricles. The heart muscle itself is supplied by the right and left coronary arteries and their branches.


Division of heart disease:

You can see heart disease in the following categories

Ischemic heart disease:

  • Angina pectoris

Acute coronary artery syndromes:

  • non-Stable Angina

Heart attack:

  • Non-ST evaluation MI
  • ST Allocation MI
  • Prinzmetal anginal

Heart failure:

  • Right heart failure
  • Left heart failure
  • Diastolic failure
  • Systolic failure
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Cardiomyopathies (heart muscle diseases)
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • Right ventricular dysplasia arrhythmia
  • Miscellaneous types of cardiomyopathy

Heart valve diseases:

  • Aortic valve stenosis
  • Dilatation and regurgitation of the aortic valve
  • Mitral stenosis
  • Mitral prolapse
  • Tricuspid valve disease
  • Pulmonary valve disease
  • Mitral valve disease
  • Disease of the aortic valve  

 Heart rate disorder (cardiac arrhythmias):

  • Bradycardia
  • Tachycardia
  • Normal heart rhythm (sinus rhythm)
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Premature heartbeat


  • Supraventricular tachyarrhythmia
  • Ventricular tachyarrhythmia

Supraventricular tachycardia:

  • Sinus tachycardia
  • Atrial tachycardia
  • Junctional tachycardia
  • Atrioventricular bypass Tachycardia
  • Atrial flutter
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Ventricular fibrillation
  • Atrial fibrillation tachycardia
  • Atrial multifocal tachycardia

Ventricular tachyarrhythmia:

  • Ventricular flutter
  • Ventricular fibrillation
  • Uninterrupted ventricular tachycardia
  • Persistent ventricular tachycardia
  • Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

Brady arrhythmias:

Atrial sinus node disorders:

  • Sinus Bradycardia
  • Patient sinus syndrome
  • Sinus arrhythmia

Atrioventricular node disorders:

Heart blocks:

  • First-degree heart block
  • Second degree heart blocks
  • Third degree heart block
  • Complete heart block

Endocardial diseases:


  • Infectious endocarditis (bacterial, fungal)
  • Pericarditis
  • Cardiac tamponade
  • Heart tumors

 Congenital heart disease:

  • Perforation of the wall between the atria
  • Interventricular septum
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Dextrocardia
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Displacement of large arteries of the heart
  • Ebstein's anomaly
  • Coarctation of the Aorta
  • Congenital defects of the heart valves

When to see a doctor?

Recognize the symptoms of heart disease like the one listed below and see a specialist if you experience any of them:

  • Chest pain
  • heart beat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swelling and edema
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blood pressure changes




Classification of cardiac disorders in infants:

In infants with heart disorders, the disorders fall into two general categories:

  • Congenital disorders with cyanosis
  • Congenital disorders without cyanosis

Be sure to see your doctor if your baby's mucus is blue or dark in color.




share this content in :
Address: 393 University Avenue,Suite 200,Toronto ON MG5 2M2,CANADA

Email: info@MarsoClinic.com

Phone: 1(647)303 0740

All Rights Reserved � By MarsoClinic

Terms of Use