Urinary tract

What is urology?


Urology is a specialized branch of medicine and a physician who specializes in urology is called a urologist. Diseases and disorders of the following organs fall within the scope of work of a surgeon and urologist:

 urinary tract

What you will read next:


Kidneys and ureters



Cavernous and urinary tract stones

Urinary tract infections in men and women

Sexually transmitted diseases in men

Reproductive disorders in men

Prostate diseases

Testicular diseases

All disorders of the male reproductive system

Kidney transplant




Diseases of the urological branch

The following are the topics and titles of diseases and disorders that are in the scope of duties and knowledge of urologists.


  • Kidney diseases

Kidney disease is one of the most common urological problems that many people experience in different degrees throughout their lives.


  • Renal failure

The disease itself is divided into the following two forms:

  1. Acute renal failure

  2. Chronic renal failure


Diseases and inflammation of glomeruli (glomerulonephritis) :

This complication also appears in two types, acute and chronic

The acute form includes the following: 

  • Inflammation of the glomerulus after streptococcal infection (post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis)
  • Post-infectious endocarditis glomerulonephritis
  • Shunt Nephritis
  • Lupus
  • Henoch-Schonlein purpura 
  • Good posture syndrome


And the chronic form includes the following:


  • FSJS
  • MPGN
  • Membranous Glomerulonephritis
  • Immunoglobulin a glomerulonephritis
  • And....


Nephrotic syndromes

There are several types of these syndromes, including:


  • Minimal Chang disease
  • FSJS
  • Diabetes
  • Systemic lupus
  • Effects of drugs
  • Amyloidosis


Kidney and urinary tract infections

These infections are divided into two different types:

  • Pyelonephritis
  • Urethritis


Urinary Tract Diseases (Ureter):

 Urinary tract diseases can be congenital or acquired during life.  



  • dual ureter (duplex ureter) (urethrosis)



  • ureteral stenosis
  • ureteral obstruction
  • ureteral stone
  • ureteral cancer


Bladder diseases

After kidney problems, it can be said that bladder problems are among the most common complications of urology. This includes the following :


Inflammation of the bladder (cystitis)

GERD (urinary relapse) Vesicoureteral reflux)

Bladder stones

Obstruction of the bladder outlet

Urinary incontinence


Sometimes urinary incontinence is caused by old age and weakened muscles. Sometimes there are other causes for it, even in youth. Types of urinary incontinence include:


Irritable bladder

Neurogenic bladder

Frequent urination

Bladder cancers


Testicular diseases:

An urologist can intervene in the treatment and diagnosis of testicular diseases, which include the following:


  • Hydrocele
  • Testicular torsion
  • Inguinal Herniation
  • Spermatocele (testicular cyst)
  • epididymal Cyst
  • Orchitis (inflammation of the testicles)
  • Inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis)
  • Trauma to the testicles
  • Testicular pain
  • Orchiectomy (testicular resection)
  • Testicular prosthesis
  • No testicles descending from inside the abdomen
  • Testicular cancers


Prostate diseases

Prostate disease is one of the most common diseases in men, which is divided into the following according to the causative agent:

Acute bacterial prostatitis

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

Chronic prostatitis (chronic pelvic pain syndrome)

Asymptomatic prostatitis

Benign prostate enlargement

Prostate cancers

Prostate resection (prostatectomy)

Prostate laser therapy


Diseases of the penis

The urologist can also perform diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in the following cases:


  • Penile pain
  • Priapism
  • Small penis
  • Penile curvature (pyrene disease)
  • Prosthesis
  • Penis with hymen
  • Balanitis
  • Penis lengthening surgery
  • Cancers
  • Skin diseases of the penis
  • Hidden or buried penis


kidney stone

As we have said, kidney problems are very common and various, among which many kidney stones sound more familiar. Kidney stones are divided into different types. This includes the following, each of which is treated by an urologist.

urinary tract

Calcium stones

Cysteine stone

Urate stone

Struvite stone (infectious)


Treatment of kidney and urinary tract stones in children

Treatment of kidney and urinary tract stones in adults

Ways to prevent kidney and urinary tract stones

Polycystic kidney

Non-hereditary polycystic kidney disease

Dominant autosomal polycystic kidney disease

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease


Infertility disorders in men

The urologist can diagnose, treat, and intervene in male infertility and take the following steps:


  • Diagnosis of infertility in men
  • Sperm test
  • Oligospermia
  • Investigation of obstructions leading to infertility
  • Male infertility


Men's sexual disorders

A urologist will also be able to intervene in men's sexual and reproductive problems. These problems can be very diverse, the most common of which are the following:

  • Premature ejaculation
  • Delayed ejaculation
  • Masturbation
  • Decreased libido
  • Sexual desire control
  • Erection Disorders
  • Bloody semen
  • Decreased testosterone


Sexually Transmitted Diseases

These diseases also occur through sexual intercourse, sometimes through contact of the genital area with the infected area. And includes the following:


  • Genital Warts
  • Genital herpes
  • Gonorrhea
  • Syphilis
  • Chlamydial urethritis
  • Chancroid
  • Lymphogranuloma and neuroma



  • Peritoneal dialysis
  • Hemodialysis
  • And ....


Urological surgeries

The surgeries that an urologist can perform are very extensive. Many laparoscopic urological surgeries can be performed today, which do not require anesthesia and large skin incisions are not made in them. In addition,rehabilitation and discharge from the hospital will be much faster for patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgery than open surgery.


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