Our eye is located inside a bony structure called the orbital cavity or orbital fossa. The inner wall of this cavity, which is adjacent to the nose, forms an angle of forty-five degrees inside which the soft tissue of our eye, which resembles a pear, and the optic nerve of the stem of this pear, is located. Here we will see:


 Eye layers
What is a blind spot?
How do we see?
Types of eye diseases
Types of ocular aberrations

Emergency eye diseases
Pediatric Ophthalmology


Eye layers:

The eyeball consists of several parts which are (starting from the superficial layer):

  • Cornea
  • Sclera
  • The anterior chamber; which is the space that is filled with fluid.
  • Uveitis 
  • Iris
  • ciliary body
  • choroid
  • Lens (eye lens)
  • Posterior chamber filled with fluid
  • retina

What is a blind spot?

The retinal layer, which forms two-thirds of the back of the eyeball and is responsible for visual signals that enter the brain, has a spot called blind spot that is the point of entry of the optic nerve (optic nerve) into the retina. It is blind spot because it is the only part of the retinal layer which cannot see.

How do we see?

Light enters the lens from the environment after passing through the pupil, which is a hole within the iris, while the lens focuses light on the retinal membrane. The captured visual information travels through the optic nerve to the occipital cortex, that is where the recognition of visual objects and scene happens. Muscles, eyelids and the lacrimal system are other components of the eye structure which all together help us to have a functional visual system.



Types of eye diseases:

Here is the full list of eye disorders and diseases:

Eyelid diseases:

  • Blepharitis
  • Enteropion
  • Ectropion
  • Stye (Hordiolum): Which itself is divided into two types of infectious and non-infectious.
    • Infectious:
      • Internal
      • External
    • Non-infectious
      • Chalazion
  • Eyelid tumors
  • Belfarospasm
  • Ptosis
  • Eyelid skin diseases

Conjunctival diseases:

  • Viral conjunctivitis
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis
  • Allergic conjunctivitis

Anterior chamber diseases of the eye:

  • Uveitis diseases
  • Uveitis
  • Anterior uveitis
  • Iritis (inflammation of the iris)
  • Iridocyclitis
  • Interstitial uveitis (includes vitreous or vitreous)
  • Posterior Uveitis
  • Panuveitis
  • Heterochromia focus disease
  • Lyme disease

Corneal diseases:

  • Congenital diseases of Cornea.
  • Corneal wounds
  • Inflammation of the cornea (keratitis):
  • Post traumatic 
  • Bacterial (It is divided into the following three types):
    • Streptococcus
    • Staphylococcus
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Viral (divided into four types):
    • Adenovirus keratitis
    • Herpes zoster
    • Herpes simplex
    • Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma)
  • Amoebic keratitis
  • Acanthamoeba
  • Secondary keratitis to eyelid and eyelash problems:
    • Exposure
    • Trichiasis
    • Eyelids do not close completely
  • Autoimmune keratitis (It is divided into the following types):
    • Mooren wounds
    • Post-transplant reaction (allograft reaction)
  • Dermatological diseases of the cornea:
    • Rosacea
    • Stevens Johnson
    • Pemphigoid
  • Corneal autoimmune diseases:
    • Wegener
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Fungal keratitis
    • Aspergillus
  • Corneal dystrophy
  • Keratoconus
  • The pterygium of the eye
  • Dry eye syndrome
  • Chemical burns
  • Corneal degeneration
  • Corneal transplantation
  • Refractive errors of the eye
    • Myopia
    • Hyperopia
    • Astigmatism

Cataract disease:

  • Acquired cataracts
  • Congenital cataracts
  • Lens capsule opacity
  • Intraocular lenses
  • Femto cataract
  • Treatment of cataracts and astigmatism
  • Treatment of cataracts and presbyopia

Glaucoma which is one of the most common eye diseases divided into the following 5 types:

  • Open angle glaucoma
  • Closed-angle glaucoma
  • Normal pressure glaucoma
  • Congenital glaucoma
  • Secondary glaucoma

Tear duct diseases: It is divided into three types:

  • Lacrimal duct obstruction
  • Congenital lacrimal duct obstruction
  • Tumors

Retinal and posterior chamber diseases (retinal and vitreous disorders):It is divided into the following types:

  • Macular age-related degeneration
  • Age-related macular Non-neovascular degeneration
  • Age-related Macular neovascular degeneration
  • Macular degeneration because of myopia
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
  • Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy
  • Retinal artery occlusion
  • This blockage can occur in four ways:
  • Central retinal artery occlusion
  • Retinal occlusion of the retinal artery
  • Central retinal vein occlusion
  • Retinal occlusion of the retinal artery
  • Macular cystoid edema
  • Retinal artery aneurysm
  • Retinopathy of prematurity
  • Congenital retinal diseases:
    • Color vision disorders
    • Complete color blindness
    • Dichromacy
    • Nyctalopia
  • Hereditary retinal dystrophies
  • Retinitis pimentos
  • Congenital blindness
  • Macular dystrophies:
  • Sturgeon disease
  • The disease closed
  • Al-Bainism
  • Some eye problems occur in response to certain medications, including: Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine 
  • Retinal detachment
  • Vitreous diseases
  • Microphthalmia
  • Microphthalmia
  • Bleeding in the eyes
  • Subconjunctival hemorrhage (subconjunctival)
  • Ocular toxoplasmosis
  • Diabetes and eyes
  • Herpes of the eye


Types of eye aberration:

Another eye problem and disease that affects people is ocular aberration. This disease, in addition to causing vision problems, also affects how a person looks. This disease is divided into the following types:

  • False deviation (pseudostrabism)
  • Inward deviation of the eye (isotropy)
  • Outward Deviation of the eye (exotropia)
  • Vertical strabismus (deviation of the eye up or down):
  • Hypertropia
  • Hypotropia
  • Eye and thyroid disorders
  • Drugs and eye disorders

Eye diseases requiring urgent treatment:

Some eye problems require immediate medical attention. Unlike other problems in which time is less important, in the following disease the time is very important in order to minimize the later complications. These emergencies are:

  • Scratching and rupture of the eyelid
  • Insertion of a foreign object into the eye
  • Penetrating eye injuries
  • Crushing of the eye and surrounding tissues
  • Chemical and thermal burns
  • Red eye and eye pain
  • Effects of radiation on the eye
  • Decreased vision
  • Eye infection (endophthalmitis)

Pediatric ophthalmology:

Ophthalmological examinations in children play a very important role. Detection of lazy eye in children and its timely treatment are extremely important. An eye that is not treated for laziness can disrupt the development of vision and cause permanent visual impairment in the eye.


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