Fever is a sign of inflammation, infection and disease in the body. Fever itself is not a disease but a symptom that occurs when the body fights an infectious or inflammatory agent. It is interesting to know that fever and chills (shivering) exist only in warm-blooded animals, including humans. What you will read next:

What diseases are associated with fever and chills?

Why do we have a fever?

Why should our body temperature rise?

What is the benefits of fever ?

What is normal body tempreture?

Home treatment for Fever



What diseases are associated with fever and chills(shivering)?

Fever and shivering are the symptoms of lots of diseases and illnesses. Those include infectious diseases such as:

  • Common cold
  • Sore throat and infectious mononucleosis
  • Flu
  • Otitis
  • Meningitis (inflammation and viral or bacterial infection of the meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord.)
  • Croup in children
  • Pneumonia
  • Endocarditis
  • Arthritis (infectious inflammation of the joints)
  • Appendicitis
  • Cellulite (skin surface infection)
  • Abscesses
  • Pyelonephritis (infection of the kidneys and urinary tract)
  • PID Infectious Inflammatory Diseases of the Pelvis
  • TB
  • Infectious gastroenteritis
  • Malaria
  • Syphilis
  • STDs are sexually transmitted diseases
  • Brucellosis
  • Crimean and Congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the stomach and intestines
  • AIDS
  • Sepsis

or malignancies like:

  • Leukemias
  • Fast-growing cancers associated with cell necrosis

They are also common in autoimmune diseases:

  • Lupus
  • Sarcoidosis

Since fever is a symptom that occurs when the body fights an infectious or inflammatory agent, one should expect having fever after taking medication (known as drug fever).  Some of these medications that can trigger fever are:

  • Atropine
  • Quinidine
  • Amphotericin
  • Nitrofurantoin
  • Sulfacetamide
  • Sulfamethoxazole
  • Silver sulfasalazine
  • Penicillin
  • Cephalosporins
  • Carbapenem
  • Interferon
  • Methyldopa

However, it should be noted that most drug fevers with a temperature above thirty-nine degrees Celsius, occurring alongside of eosinophilia and maculopapular skin rash, usually start one to two weeks after starting the drug and normally disappear 72 hours after stopping the drug.


Why do we have a fever?

The body temperature is controlled by a part of our brain called the hypothalamus and this is where our body temperature is set. In general, febrile agents are called pyrogens. External viruses are febrile agents that enter our body from outside. This can be different  types of bacteria and viruses, fungi and non-microbial chemical compounds. Internal pyrogens are compounds made by humans in the body to fight the pathogen such as: interleukins one and six.

When an external febrile agent like bacteria enters the body or when in cancerous tumors, part of the tumor cells necrosis and enters the bloodstream, our immune system is activated against them producing substances called endogenous pyrogens Like TNF Alpha and interleukins one and six, which are in our bloodstream and are detected by the Hypothalamic Temperature Control Center. Then, a substance called prostaglandin II is produced and the point on which our body is set would be raised.


How does our body temperature rise?

Our body follows multiple procedures to increase our body temperature.

At first, the superficial arteries of the body that are close to the skin are narrowed to prevent heat loss. At the same time metabolism also increases to produce more heat. As metabolism increases, our muscles start to contract, directing more blood flow to vital organs inside the body. In general, these contractions on the surface, as well as the contractions of the muscles producing heat, will make us shiver.


What are the benefits of fever?

  1. The activity of pathogens such as bacteria and viruses decreases at high temperatures.
  2. Toxins secreted by bacteria (endotoxins) become ineffective at high temperatures.
  3. White blood cells and the immune system and macrophages become more active at high temperatures.
  4. The rate of antibody production is higher at higher temperatures.

Historically, In the past, by inducing fever, some has successfully activated the immune system of the body and cured infections. However, it should be remembered that this increase in temperature and fever is like a double-edged sword. At temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit), the proteins that make up the enzymes protecting cells start to get disrupted. If the temperature rises further than this, all the cells inside the body start to malfunction and may get severely damaged because of the irreversible damage caused to the proteins. This is why high-grade fever must be controlled and treated promptly.


What is normal body temperature?

One of the most reliable places to measure the body temperature is under the tongue known as oral temperature. ​​The average oral temperature should be in the range of 36.8 +- 0.4 degrees Celsius. In a healthy person, the minimum body temperature will occur at six o'clock in the morning and the maximum temperature will happen around six o'clock in the evening. Rectal temperature is usually 0.6oC more than the oral temperature and the degree of axillary temperature is around 0.6oC less than the temperature measured underneath the tongue. 

However, the bod temperature may violate these margins in some special cases. for example, the temperature rises after eating during pregnancy and also in case of certain endocrine disorders. Also the hormone progesterone in the second half of the women's cycle causes the morning temperature to rise by about 0.6 degrees Celsius.


Home treatment and remedies for Fever

For fevers below 40 degrees Celsius (104°F), drinking plenty of fluids and using fever-reducing medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen are sufficient unless your doctor prescribes some other treatment. Fever control in children under five is vital, especially when they are between the ages of three to six months. Uncontrolled and untreated fever can be accompanied by seizures during this period.

Acetaminophen is recommended for infants and toddlers when the fever temperature goes above 38.5°C (101.3oF). Older adults, usually do not experience high-temperature fever due to changes in the hypothalamus. In people with a history of heart disease who experience fever, increased heart rate following a fever can cause a problem, and therefore temperature control with acetaminophen is recommended.



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Address: 393 University Avenue,Suite 200,Toronto ON MG5 2M2,CANADA

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Phone: +1(647)303 0740

All Rights Reserved © By MarsoClinic

Terms of Use