hypothyroidism vs hyperthyroidism

 

If you want to read complete information about hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in simple language, read on.

 

Hypothyroidism

Risk factors for infection

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

Common causes of hypothyroidism

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Definitive diagnosis of hypothyroidism

treatment

Hyperthyroidism

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism

Goiter and hyperthyroidism

Treatment of hyperthyroidism

What are the nutritional tips for people with hyperthyroidism?

What foods reduce thyroid activity?

 

 

The thyroid gland is an important hormone-secreting gland in the human body that is located in the form of a butterfly in front of the neck.

 

Hormones secreted by the thyroid include:

Thyroxine and triiodothyronine or T3; T4, The function of these hormones is to regulate metabolism.

And

Calcitonin, whose function is to balance calcium in the blood.

 

Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland play a very important role in the growth and metabolism of our body.

Disorders that cause the production of thyroid hormones to decrease are called hypothyroidism, and disorders that cause the thyroid to produce more hormones are called hyperthyroidism.

You will learn more about hyperthyroidism vs hypothyroidism below.

 

Hypothyroidism

Endocrinologists consider hypothyroidism to be a common glandular disorder.

In hypothyroidism, we experience decreased production of thyroid hormones, intolerance to cold, excessive fatigue, mood swings, depression and memory loss, and loss of appetite are common manifestations of hypothyroidism.

In many cases, hypothyroidism has been present for years, but its symptoms are neglected and the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not made.

 

Risk factors for infection

All individuals and age groups may develop hypothyroidism, but in the following groups, the risk is higher:

  • old women
  • People over sixty, especially women
  • People with a history of immune system defects
  • People with a history of thyroid disease in a first-degree family.
  • People with a history of arbitrary drug use

Doctors say heredity is involved in developing hypothyroidism.

 

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

The most common laboratory manifestation of hypothyroidism is a decrease in the hormone thyroxine. The most common factor in a decrease in thyroxine production is autoimmune problems and disorders.

Autoimmune disorder means that an individual's immune system considers its own cells to be foreign and attacks them, and with the injury, the thyroid cannot function as before and produce hormones.

Here are some common causes of hypothyroidism.

 

Common causes of hypothyroidism

  • Hashimoto's autoimmune disorder

An autoimmune disorder that reduces thyroid function.

Type 1 diabetes and vitiligo also increase the risk of developing hypothyroidism

  • Following hyperthyroidism treatment
  • Following treatment for other endocrine and hormonal disorders
  • Following injury during surgery
  • Iodine deficiency is one of the most common causes of hypothyroidism worldwide.
  • Hypothyroidism can be congenital and present in the newborn baby.
  • The pituitary gland controls and stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones, and the pituitary gland itself is regulated by the hypothalamus. Diseases and problems of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland can be associated with hypothyroidism or interfere with the production and secretion of hormones in the thyroid.

 

  • medicines:

Lithium

Amiodarone

 

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Manifestations and symptoms can vary at different ages.

General symptoms include:

  • Excessive fatigue is the most common symptom of hypothyroidism.
  • Cold intolerance
  • Depression and mood swings
  • Muscle cramps
  • Decreased appetite
  • Weight gain
  • Cognitive and memory disorders
  • Dry skin
  • Loose and brittle nails
  • Weak hair
  • hair loss
  • Irregular menstruation in women
  • Decreased sexual desire

 

  • In the elderly, the following symptoms may be the only manifestation of hypothyroidism:

Cognitive problems and memory impairment. Depression and low mood.

  • In children, hypothyroidism causes problems and disorders in the child's growth.
  • In adolescents, hypothyroidism causes premature puberty.

 

Other symptoms include:

  • Hoarseness
  • Hearing loss
  • Puffy face
  • anemia
  • Decreased heart rate
  • Excessive eyebrow hair loss
  • Roughness of sound

 

Definitive diagnosis of hypothyroidism

Definitive diagnosis of hypothyroidism is possible only by performing a test of thyroid function and measuring

Tsh

T3

T3.

The clinical signs of hypothyroidism are not specific, and overlap with the symptoms of many disorders.

 

treatment

Medication: Oral medication in the form of levothyroxine tablets, this drug is actually the same hormone that the thyroid could not produce.

The required dose for each person is determined according to the test results and only by a doctor.

Symptoms improve completely with the start of medication in some people, but in some people the response to treatment will be delayed.

 

If you have a history of hypothyroidism in your first-degree relatives.

If you have dry skin that does not respond to a variety of moisturizers, and if you can not tolerate the cold, if you are too tired, be sure to see a doctor for further evaluation.

 

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism

we say there is hyperthyroidism, when the thyroid produces too much thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

 

Doctors consider the most common cause of hyperthyroidism to be an autoimmune disorder.

We have already explained what is meant by autoimmune disorder.

Autoimmune disorders are more common in women than men.

Graves' disease, which is an autoimmune disorder, is considered to be the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

 

Graves' is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system produces anti-thyroid antibodies. The compounds produced over-stimulate the thyroid cells and cause the production and secretion of thyroid hormones.

 

Graves' is the most common and important cause of hyperthyroidism.

Women are much more likely than men to have hyperthyroidism.

 

In addition to Graves, other causes that can lead to hyperthyroidism include:

 

Excessive iodine intake

T3 intake in some supplements in some countries

thyroid inflammation

Some testicular tumors

Some ovarian tumors

Because these tumors make compounds very similar to TSH, and this combination will stimulate the thyroid gland more and more to make large amounts of thyroid hormones.

 

Some pituitary tumors

And

Some thyroid cancers

 

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

  • Increase heart rate
  • protrusion of the eye from its orbit which is called exophthalmos
  • weight loss
  • hair loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Goiter or enlarged thyroid
  • Shaking of hands and fingers
  • Reduction of menstrual frequency and reduction of monthly bleeding volume
  • sweating
  • Heat intolerance
  • Breast enlargement in men or gynecomastia
  • Separation of nails from the nail bed
  • Muscle weakness, especially in the pelvic, thigh, and shoulder muscles
  • Restlessness
  • Excessive irritability

With proper treatment, these symptoms will go away.

 

The important point is that sometimes the only manifestation of hyperthyroidism in the elderly is a potentially high-risk erythema called AF.

Atrial fibrillation, or AF, causes a large, irregular heartbeat that carries the risk of blood clots, stroke, and congestive heart failure.

 

Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism

Symptoms cannot make a definitive diagnosis.

Performing a laboratory test to evaluate thyroid function and measure blood TSH, T3 and T4.

The radioactive iodine test, Because the overactive thyroid gland absorbs all the labeled iodine to make hormones.

The intervals for performing thyroid function test will be every three months. Monitoring the response to treatment is also repeated by testing at intervals of three months.

Hyperthyroidism may also require thyroid ultrasound.

 

Goiter and hyperthyroidism

The term goiter refers only to an enlarged thyroid gland, but this enlarged thyroid may be underworked, overactive, or even have a perfectly normal function.

Goiter may be a complication of hyperthyroidism.

 

Hyperthyroidism treatment

In Graves' disease or goiter with multiple nodules or goiter with a single toxic nodule:

  • Medication is prescribed:

Methimazole

Propylthiouracil

Possible side effects:

Skin rashes, itching

Fever and drop in white blood cells or leukopenia that should be reported to a doctor immediately.

Hepatitis or inflammation of the liver is also a complication of these drugs.

 

  • Treatment with radioactive iodine:

Radioactive iodine therapy is almost safe and there is no danger. It is widely used in the treatment of adults with hyperthyroidism.

 

  • surgery:

The last treatment option is surgery and removal of a part of the thyroid. This method is less chosen due to leaving a scar at the surgical incision on the front of the neck.

 

What are the nutritional tips for people with hyperthyroidism?

People with hyperthyroidism should follow the nutrition tips below:

  • Get enough vitamin A.
  • Eat less iodized salt.
  • Eat less seafood.
  • Do not take supplements containing iodine.

 

  • Oral consumption of the following should also be limited:
  • Chocolate
  • Caffeine
  • Cola

 

  • Smokers should quit smoking. Smoking greatly increases the risk of eye complications.

 

What foods reduce thyroid activity?

Finally, it is good to know that foods below lower thyroid function:

  • Cabbage
  • lunar cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Spinach
  • Turnip
  • peanut
  • pear
  • Soy
  • Peach
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