itchy anus cancer

 

Do those around you have anal cancer?

Want to know what causes anal cancer?

If you want to know what causes anal cancer?

How is anal cancer diagnosed and how is anal cancer treated?

And what are the symptoms and manifestations of this cancer? We recommend that you read more.

 

What you will read next:

 

Introduction

Anal cancer

Epidemiology

What are the risk factors for anal cancellation?

What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer?

Bleeding from the anus

Diagnosis

treatment

What happens after treatment?

What is screening for colon and rectal cancers like?

How to prevent anal cancer?

 

 

 

Introduction

Doctors define cancer as a group of diseases in which the body's normal cells lose their normal weight and ability to control their growth.

Cancers are actually abnormal proliferation of cells in the body, and these masses may have a local invasion of the surrounding tissues or invade and multiply in other parts of the body. Distant metastasis or anal canal metastasis is one of the cancers that occurs less frequently in human society than other tumors.

 

Anal cancer

This cancer originates from cells around the inside of the anal canal. Anal cancer is often a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, or SCC for short. Anal cancer can rarely occur in the anal canal. This cancer of any type, it will definitely require the advice and action of a surgeon to evaluate the appropriate examination and treatment.

Cells that are malignant or pre-malignant but have not yet penetrated deeper into the skin are referred to as high-grade intraepithelial neoplasms.

In fact, the cells that are in a pre-malignant state and are mentioned in the above phase are the precursors of anal cancer, but they are not anal cancer itself, their treatment is completely different. In fact, it is a doctor who can help clarify the difference between the two.

 

Epidemiology

About 6,000 new cases of anal cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year. This complex accounts for only one to two percent of all bowel cancers. It is estimated that one in every 600 people in the world may develop anal cancer in their lifetime.

You can compare these statistics and ratios, although one in twenty people worldwide may develop colorectal cancer in their lifetime, But it is interesting to note that unlike the types of cancers in which the incidence of cancer is declining compared to previous years, unfortunately the incidence of anal cancer is slowly increasing.

 

What are the risk factors for anal cancellation?

First of all, what do we mean when we talk about risk factor or contributing factors? Risk factors are actually factors that increase the likelihood and risk of developing the disease. Anal cancer is said to be directly related to infection with the human papillomavirus. This virus can cause warts around the anus and genital area in men and women, as well as abnormalities and malignant changes inside the vagina and cervix in women, but it is interesting to say Warts are not necessary for the formation and progression of anal cancer. Also, a history of other cancers related to human papillomavirus, especially cervical cancer, will expose a person to anal cancer. Other risk factors for anal cancer include:

Age over fifty-five years, history of anal sex, being a Smoker, Having sexually transmitted diseases, Having multiple sexual partners, having Immune deficiency and weakened immune system such as people who are undergoing chemotherapy, have been transplanted and are taking anti-transplant drugs, or people who have HIV or they are either in the AIDS stage and people who have a history of pelvic radiation therapy, or people who have had chronic local inflammation in the area, such as people with a long-term anal fistula or an ulcer in their anus.

 

What are the signs and symptoms of anal cancer?

Sometimes anal cancer is diagnosed very early because it is in a place where the is a doctor in front of it and the doctor sees it easily, takes a sample, and quickly concludes, the following are some of the signs and clinical manifestations of anal cancer:

Some of these symptoms are:

  • Swelling of the lymph nodes in the anus
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin
  • Narrowing of the stool
  • Excessive mucus discharge from the anus
  • Dark mucus discharge from the anus
  • Purulent anal discharge
  • The presence of a gland-like mass or tissue at the end of the anus
  • Persistent and frequent anal pain
  • Frequent and persistent anal itching
  • Changing bowel habits like more and less defecation
  • Strain at the start of defecation

 

Bleeding from the anus

As you can see, many of these manifestations and symptoms may be present in other disorders and diseases, such as hemorrhoids. But just as we should not ignore hemorrhoids and fissures in examining similar symptoms, If the above symptoms continue, our minds should turn to the possibility of anal cancer.

This means that we must take these symptoms seriously and if you encounter any of these symptoms, be sure to see a doctor.

 

Diagnosis

The question arises as to how anal cancer is diagnosed, Anal cancers are usually diagnosed by a doctor on anal examination, following your complaint of one or more of the above manifestations.

However, the person may have a lesion and changes in the anal area and be diagnosed accidentally in other conditions, such as annual anal examinations for the prostate in men or at the time of pelvic examinations in women.

It is also recommended that some people be screened annually to prevent colorectal cancer. Some people may be diagnosed with rectal cancer during colorectal screening. People may find out they have anal cancer during the colon cancer screening process

Therefore, it should be said that endoscopic studies are necessary to reach the pathologies of this area.

During these studies, a sample of suspected abnormal tissue should be taken and sent to a laboratory for study.

Once the diagnosis is made, other tests will be requested accordingly to determine the stage of the cancer.

 

treatment

Therapies are said to be very effective in curing cancer, and in other words, anal cancer is one of the cancers that has a good response to treatment if diagnosed early and receiving appropriate treatment.

There are three basic treatments for anal cancer, which we will mention below.

  1. Surgery: The surgeon removes the cancerous mass with a clean margin
  2. Radiation therapy: usually high-dose X-rays is used to kill cancer cells in this area.
  3. Chemotherapy and certain drugs are used to kill cancer cells or cancer remnants after surgery. Today, doctors use combination therapy, such as radiotherapy, in addition to chemotherapy as a standard treatment for anal cancer.

Sometimes the tumor is very small or there are precancerous changes. In these cases, the doctor may go to surgery and actually do local incision and do not need any other treatment.

Sometimes it is necessary to have a larger surgery in which part of the normal tissue around the tumor needs to be removed.

The intestines and skin open and attach to a sac on the abdominal wall, but you should know that most people with anal cancer will not need this stool bag, but if the tumor does not respond completely to treatment and recur after treatment, or it is an unusual type of anal cancer, the doctor may remove the anus with surgery and implant a permanent colostomy. 

 

What happens after treatment?

When your doctor chooses a treatment for your anal cancer, he or she will tell you that most anal cancers and Combination therapies will improve. In case of recurrence, appropriate treatment is possible. However, if it is diagnosed quickly, the prognosis is very good with the mentioned therapies. Follow-up sessions and regular examinations by the doctor should be done at regular intervals to review the results of treatment and to make special assessments for the recurrence of the disease in you.

 

What is screening for colon and rectal cancers like?

Screening should begin in a healthy person without a positive family history from the age of 50.

In the evaluations for the time of the beginning of the screening, you will probably be asked some questions. From these questions, we will mention a few:

Apart from age, other questions include: A question about a history of colon polyps in yourself or a family member. A second question: A history of colon cancer in yourself or a close relative.

questions about your inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, Questions about your personal history or close family member with a history of ovarian or endometrial or anal cancer.

When your answer to any of the above questions is yes, your doctor will say that you are at a higher risk of developing the disease, Therefore, a more accurate and appropriate program of screening the relevant tests for review and follow-up is provided to you.

These screenings and tests, even if you have no symptoms, are prescribed by your doctor in some cases and are necessary.

Colon cancer screening as well as the right lifestyle can help prevent the disease.

 

How to prevent anal cancer?

  • Not smoking
  • Do not drink too much alcohol.
  • Avoid foods high in saturated fat.
  • Do not eat processed foods.
  • Include plenty of high-fiber fruits and vegetables in your diet.
  • Maintain your normal weight.
  • Be physically active and exercise.
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Finally, perform a colon and rectal cancer screening according to your doctor's schedule.
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