symtoms of lung cancer

 

Lung cancer is considered one of the deadliest cancers in the world. The second leading cause of death in women is lung cancer. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Cough (with bloody sputum), shortness of breath and weight loss are the most common symptoms of lung cancers. In this article we will talk more about the symptoms of lung cancer

 

Tobacco and lung cancer

Causes of lung cancer

What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer?

When should we see a doctor?

Diagnosis of lung cancer

 

 

Tobacco and lung cancer

Prolonged smoking, especially tobacco, can cause fundamental changes in the genetic structure of lung tissue cells and cause malignant cells that cause lung cancer. Out-of-control proliferation of this malignant cell will lead to cancer or lung cancer. The types of primary lung tumors, ie tumors that arise from the lung tissue itself, are:

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC)

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

 

Causes of lung cancer

  • Tobacco is the cause of 90% of lung cancers
  • Only fifteen percent of the non-smoking population develops lung cancer, which is different from smokers.
  • Pollutants in the air and the environment

Stimulants and harmful substances for lung cells such as:

  • Asbestos or fireproof cotton
  • Radon (produced in old soil and materials and is odorless and colorless)
  • Nickel
  • Uranium
  • Inhalation of cigarette smoke in non-smokers

 

Predisposing factors for infection are:

  • Favorable genetics for the presence of lung cancer in close family members
  • Immune-related predisposing factors or predisposing immunological factors are known as certain deficiencies and weaknesses in the immune system of individuals that predispose them to various types of cancer, including lung cancer.

 

What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer?

One of the most frustrating cases is that most lung cancers take many years to develop into clinical manifestations that take the person to the doctor.

  • If non-smokers have a cough that has been identified as unexplained and has lasted more than two weeks and has not improved or worsened
  • Sputum that changes color
  • Existence of increased sputum
  • Bloody sputum frequently
  • Smokers whose previous coughs have intensified and are now accompanied by clear blood
  • wheezing
  • Excessive loss of appetite
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • New bone fractures unrelated to serious trauma
  • Headaches, mental changes and periodic memory disorders
  • Imbalance due to metastasis of lung cancer to the brain and nervous system
  • Strange bone pain
  • New and unexplained joint pain
  • Swelling of the face
  • Swelling of the neck
  • New and unexplained bleeding
  • New coagulation disorders
  • Numerous and unusual blood clots

Tumors that grow around the lungs, such as lung adenocarcinomas, irritate the lining of the outer surface of the lungs. This membrane is called the pleura.

Stimulation of this membrane due to pressure and inflammation caused by peripheral lung tumors will cause a symptom called pleurisy.

In pleurisy, a person suffers from severe pain in the chest when breathing, especially in the deep tail, which is exacerbated by coughing, sneezing, crying, or laughing.

 

When should we see a doctor?

If you are a smoker and have the following symptoms, do not miss the opportunity to see a doctor because most SCLC tumors, which are common in smokers, will not be successful if detected late in treatment:

  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Weakness and lethargy
  • Frequent blood-stained coughs
  • Swelling of the face and neck
  • Bone fracture without trauma and serious trauma
  • Change the sound of breathing
  • Increased wheezing
  • Hoarseness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain when breathing or coughing and sneezing
  • Unexplained chest pain and discomfort

 

Diagnosis of lung cancer

Depending on a person's general health, diagnostic tests for lung cancer may include the following:

 

  • CT Scan:

In this procedure, a CT scan shows a three-dimensional image of the body by taking a number of X-rays, showing the exact location and size of the lesion and the spread of the lung tumor to other parts of the chest or more distant organs, such as the liver. it is possible.

 

  • Radiography using magnetic field intensification:

This test is similar to a CT scan, except that instead of X-rays, magnets are used to photograph organs. In this test, the patient stays in the room of this device for 30 minutes and cross-sectional images of his body are taken.

 

  • Sampling or biopsy:

(Microscopic examination of tumor tissue samples) This test is very important because it is the safest way to diagnose lung cancer and its type.

  • Sonography:

In this method, sound waves are used to study the structure of the mass in the lungs.

 

 

  • Breathing test:

In this method, the patient undergoes different respiratory tests before surgery.

 

  • blood test:

Cancerous tumors produce specific antigens and enzymes that may be detected by blood tests. Measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen and NSE enzyme is one of the tests of this disease. Increasing the level of these proteins is a sign of cancer and decreasing their level during treatment is a sign of inhibiting the growth of patient cancer cells.

 

  • Bone scan:

Imaging of the bone with a radioactive material is a very useful method used to diagnose the spread of cancer to the bone, the effectiveness of cancer treatment, and the healing process of the affected areas of the bone.

  • X-ray of the lungs
  • Sputum test
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