warning signs of cervical cancer


If you want to learn about cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in many developing countries. If you want to know the warning signs, symptoms and manifestations of cervical cancer. We recommend that you read more.



What is cervical cancer?

What is the origin of cervical cancer?

What are the underlying causes of cervical cancer?

What are the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer?

How does cervical cancer occur?

What is the human papillomavirus?

How do doctors diagnose cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer screening

What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?



Prognosis of cervical tumor




Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women and mainly in developing countries is the most common cancer among women in those societies. If the disease is detected in the early stages, treatment includes surgery or a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and both results will be almost the same.

Other treatment strategies may be used to improve treatment outcomes in advanced cases. For example, in advanced cervical cancers, a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is used to limit and shrink the tumor before surgery. Certain medications may also be used for individuals.

In the following, we are going to know more about this common cancer, its signs, manifestations and warning signs.


If cervical cells become abnormal and grow abnormally, in other words, they grow faster than normal, cervical cancer develops, which we will discuss below.


What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer develops when cells in the cervix become abnormal and multiply rapidly.

The cervix is ​​the part of a woman's body that sits between the uterus and the vagina. If the diagnosis of this cancer does not occur in time and in the early stages and treatment is not started early and in time, it can definitely threaten a person's life. It can almost be said that different types of uterine cancers are caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or the virus that Most people know the wart virus as it starts. In fact, it is the virus that causes cervical cells to undergo precancerous changes. Now, as we said, if this cancer is diagnosed in the early stages, we can hope that it will improve significantly after treatment.

Therefore, considering this issue and the high prevalence of cancer among women in developing societies, we consider it necessary to acquaint you with the signs and warning signs of this cancer.


What is the origin of cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is a cancer that starts in the cells of the mucous tissue that are in the cervix, between the vagina and the uterus.

The cervix is ​​said to be a hollow cylinder that connects the lower part of the uterus to a woman's vagina. Most cervical cancers show up during menopause, but it usually takes a long time for cervical cells to become cancerous, from pre-cancerous cells to cancer. There are several types of human papillomavirus

There are about twelve types of human papillomavirus that can lead to cancers, including cervical cancer. In fact, people who are affected by high-risk types of the virus first develop precancerous changes in the cylindrical cells of their cervix, and if left untreated and not treated properly, these changes will spread and lead to cancerous tissue.


What are the underlying causes of cervical cancer?

We mentioned above that human papillomavirus is said to have high-risk types, which is the most important predisposing factor for precancerous changes and cervical cancer in women. In addition to the virus, there are other factors that increase the risk of cervical cancer in women.

Here are some of the most important ones:

  • smoking
  • Having a family history of cervical cancer
  • Infections such as chlamydia
  • History of dysplasia such as cervical dysplasia, vaginal dysplasia, and genital or vulvar dysplasia Immune system deficiencies, such as AIDS, in which people have problems fighting infections due to underlying immune system defects.
  • Age is another factor that can increase the risk of cervical cancer. It is said that the average age of all people with cervical cancer is forty-eight years old. It is also rarely found in people under the age of twenty.


What are the signs and symptoms of cervical cancer?

It is interesting to note that most women with cervical cancer do not know it themselves because they often have no symptoms in the early stages and may even have no symptoms until the later stages when the cervical cell becomes completely cancerous.


When symptoms appear, they are often confused with common conditions and manifestations, such as gynecological symptoms or urinary tract infections. . Therefore, we emphasize that awareness of the warning signs that can raise the possibility of cervical cancer is of great importance for every single woman.

Because this cancer can be diagnosed in the first stages and phases and it can be well controlled and treated.

The following are the common signs and symptoms of cervical cancer so that you do not fall short of any of them and consult a doctor immediately.

  • Frequent urination
  • Painful urination or pain when urinating
  • Stinky vaginal discharge
  • Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • Vaginal bleeding during menopause
  • Unusual bleeding between menstrual cycles at inappropriate times
  • Pelvic pain
  • Urine more than normal
  • Vaginal bleeding after pelvic examination
  • Discharge of liquids with unusual color and odor


It is recommended that all women undergo regular cervical cancer screening in accordance with international guidelines. Also, if you experience one or more of these symptoms, be sure to talk to your doctor about the possibility of this malignancy.


How does cervical cancer occur?

Human papillomavirus, or HPV, can cause many types of cervical cancer. There are certain strains of the virus that cause malignant and abnormal normal cells in a woman's cervix. These normal cells of the cervix undergo changes when they enter the human papillomavirus.


That is, they are in the precancerous stages and after years and even decades, they completely progress to being cancerous.

Women who take a drug called Diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy are at higher risk for cervical cancer.


It is said that in the past, doctors used this drug, which was a type of estrogen, to prevent abortion.

The drug is said to be linked to the formation of abnormal cells in the vagina and cervix. The drug has been collected from the United States market since about the 1970s.

It is recommended that the mother of the infected person be asked about taking or not taking this medicine. It is said that there is currently no test to determine if DSE has been used in the past.


What is the human papillomavirus?

Human papillomavirus can often cause cervical cancer and genital warts.

The virus is transmitted to you through sexual contact with an infected person. Human papillomavirus is transmitted through anal, oral and vaginal sex. Ninety-nine percent of all cervical cancers are said to be affected by the virus. There are more than two hundred types of human papillomavirus, not all of which can cause cervical cancer.

Therefore, doctors divide human papillomaviruses into two general categories. Papillomavirus types six and eleven cause genital warts. They are not carcinogenic and have a low risk.

Human papillomavirus can also cause other types of cancers and malignancies, including:

  • throat cancer
  • Anal cancer
  • Penile and vulvar cancer

These viruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States, and according to statistics, most women who carry the virus will not develop cervical cancer. The virus goes away in about two years without any treatment.


However, some people will remain infected even after a long period of time has passed since the virus entered their body, and the viral disease caused by human papillomavirus and cervical cancer will not always be accompanied by a series of symptoms. This means that people who have the virus or even have precancerous changes or cervical cancer they may not have clear and specific demonstrations.

Your doctor will usually screen you for a Pap smear to check for possible abnormalities in your cervical cells and make sure you are not infected with the HIV virus during the test.


How do doctors diagnose cervical cancer?

Today, medical science has the ability to detect abnormal cells and cells with precancerous changes by using a Pap smear test and studying the samples collected in this test by a pathologist, To achieve this, as you know, with a cotton swab, a sample of cervical mucus is removed and sent to a laboratory to identify any cancer cells on the verge of becoming cancerous.

Women between the ages of twenty and one and twenty-nine are said to be advised to have a Pap smear every three years for cervical cancer. For women between the ages of thirty and sixty-five, screening for Pap smears at intervals of three years is definitely required.

You can also get tested for HPV or a combined Pap smear and HPV test for a period of five years.

The HPV test we mentioned above is very similar to the Pap smear test. This means that your doctor will first sample the cervical cells with a special cotton swab and in this way, the presence of any genetic effects related to the HPV virus in the existing cells is tested.

In cases where a person has been vaccinated to protect against HPV, regular Pap smears should be performed regularly to screen for changes in cervical cancer.


Cervical cancer screening

Cervical cancer screening has, according to clear statistics, reduced the death rate of cancer patients worldwide. This test should be done when the person has no symptoms. Note the following points about this test:

Pap smear test is used to screen for cervical cancer .After performing some screening tests that were found to be positive and, in other words, an abnormality was detected, an HPV test should also be used. The HPV test may be done with or without Pap smear.


What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?

Although this cancer is a dangerous type and can be life threatening, but we must say that fortunately it can be diagnosed and prevented. To prevent this disorder, we must first know the risk factors of this type of disease well. The most important factors are:

  • People who get married and have sex at a young age of sixteen
  •  People who do not follow health care
  • People who smoke
  • People with a history of sexually transmitted infections
  • People with weakened immune systems and weakened immune systems, for example, people with AIDS, because in these people, due to the weakened immune system, it will not be able to clear the virus of cells on its own.
  • People with high sex
  • Multi-partner women


As we have said, not all types of this virus, the HPV virus, which is the main cause of cervical cancer, are dangerous, and the prevalence of this virus, its dangerous form, is very high in the reproductive ages of twenty to thirty years. This infection can spread to other malignancies after about seven years if left untreated.

So early detection prevents progression as well as complete cancer of the area.



Cervical cancer, as we have said, is the second leading cause of cancer death among women, and in many developing countries it is the second most common cancer among women, and again in developing countries it may be the most common cancer in women.


Despite the screening tests recommended by the World Health Organization for early detection of the disease in the precancerous stage. Unfortunately, in developing societies, women are not yet aware of the importance of this test.

Prior to the use of Pap smears, the disease has been reported in Europe, North America, and Australia as well as in developing countries today.


For example, in the past, the prevalence in the United States was thirty-eight per 100,000 people. It is said that most cases of cancer are now diagnosed in the early stages of cancer with Pap smear and can be completely treated with conventional therapies, but in developing countries, 80% of cases of the disease are diagnosed in advanced stages.

Which, despite advanced treatments, do not have a good prognosis. These differences are due to differences in economic and social factors and the provision of health services, as well as behavioral differences between women in different societies. In addition, this cancer has different manifestations from one region to another, which in fact indicates different types of this human virus at different points.


For example, in Mexico, where the incidence of cervical cancer is high, type 16 virus, which has a high risk of carcinogenesis, is more common.



In the early stages of treatment are as follows

On stage one to two

In these cases, surgical treatment or a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy can be used and the result of treatment is the same in both cases.


If there is involvement, that is the pelvic lymph nodes are also involved, removal of these masses is recommended. After surgery, if there are complications around the uterus or lymph nodes, chemotherapy and radiation therapy should be used.

Stage three

At this stage, it is also necessary to remove the lymph nodes involved in the pelvis and all the tissues involved in the pelvis.

In these cases, surgery or radiotherapy or a combination of radiotherapy and surgery is used. In young women, maintenance treatments, which include complete removal of the uterus, are not usually used.

In advanced cases, that is from stage one onwards, there are no standard treatments.


It is said that until the year one thousand nine hundred and ninety-six, only radiation therapy was performed for advanced cases of cervical cancer. After three years, in the year one thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine, researchers have said that in all cases of advanced cervical cancer, chemotherapy and radiation therapy should be used, Thus, the recurrence rate was reduced by 50% and the risk of death was reduced by 30 to 50%.

Increased regrowth of tumor cells that are resistant to radiotherapy, and prolonged treatment, are thought to be the leading cause of death.

There are said to be tumors that do not respond to chemotherapy alone, and most of these tumors will also be resistant to radiotherapy.


But it is said that patients who have been resistant to chemotherapy have been found to respond well to the combination of the two.

In cancerous tumors, there is a phenomenon that involves the production of new blood vessels that form in new tissues. This is a normal phenomenon and in some cases is really necessary for wound healing or fetal growth.


Unfortunately, this phenomenon causes the spread of tumor masses. Today, different blood vessels inhibit this production of new blood vessels in cancerous tumors. Tumors such as the lung, breast, ovary, and colon can be narrowed with this drug.


This drug has been used in cervical cancers in cases where the tumor is in stage four or three, or the tumor has stabilized or recurred, and the results have been satisfactory.


Prognosis of cervical tumor

One of the important factors in prognosis is whether it was diagnosed in the early stages of cancer. And the extent of the said tumor spread.

Women whose pelvic exams and annual screening tests are done at the right time are more likely to find abnormalities and precancerous tissue in the early stages, so these factors make treatment successful. One of the factors influencing the prognosis is determined by the type of cervical cancer that the person has.

The next is tumor size, which is an important predictor of prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. Cancer cells divide rapidly. Cancer cells divide rapidly, and it is important to diagnose the disease when the tumor is small. A small tumor that has a high rate of proliferation responds well to chemotherapy.

Another factor that affects the prognosis of cervical cancer is what stage the cancer is at. The stage in which cervical cancer is located has a 100% impact on the patient's chances of recovery and prognosis.

The first stage is when the cancer is confined to the cervix. The chance of survival in this case is 100%.

If the disease is diagnosed at this stage and treatment measures are taken.

The second stage of the tumor spreads to areas outside the cervix but is still confined to the pelvis. If cancer is detected at this stage, there is a good chance of survival.

The third stage of the tumor has reached the pelvic wall and the lower parts of the vagina.


If the patient's body is in good immunity and treatment is started on time, it can be said that the five-year survival is about fifty percent.

Stage forth cancer affects other parts of the body and at this stage the patient survival is low and unfortunately the prognosis at this stage is unfavorable and poor.

If cervical cancer is detected in the early stages, treatment is very successful, but there are severe complications in stages three and four and the prognosis will be poor.

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