what causes kidney cancer

 

Do you want to know about kidney cancer and its signs and symptoms?

Do you want to know what causes kidney tumors?

Do you want to get acquainted with different types of kidney tumors?

If you are one of those people who want to know what causes kidney tumors, we recommend that you read on.

 

Introduction

Introduction of kidney structure

What are the types of kidney tumors?

Epidemiology

What are the signs and symptoms of kidney cancer?

What causes kidney cancer?

How is kidney cancer treated?

Explanation of symptoms in kidney tumor

What are the metastases of kidney cancer and what are its symptoms?

What are the complications of a malignant kidney tumor?

 

 

Introduction

Kidney tumors and kidney cancer are cancers that originate in the kidney. This means that these tumors start in the kidneys. If cells multiply uncontrollably, these abnormal cells are called cancer cells, which are different from normal tissue cells. This process is called tissue cancer.

Cells in any part of the body can become cancerous. The function of cancer cells is abnormal. Also sometimes, cancer cells have the ability to spread to other parts of the body and spread there.

 

Introduction of kidney structure

The human kidneys are two and about the size of a fist and are located in pairs on either side of the lower part of the spine.

These bean-shaped limbs attach to the back wall and upper abdomen and are protected by your lower ribs. On each kidney is a small gland called the adrenal gland. Each kidney and adrenal gland is located in a layer of fat that is surrounded by a thin membrane. The kidney is the center of blood purification. Waste is removed from the blood and excreted in the urine along with water, salt and other additives.

The kidneys are very effective in regulating blood pressure, and they also secrete a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells.

 

What are the types of kidney tumors?

There are different types of kidney cancer. Statistics show that most cases and about ninety percent of malignant kidney tumors are kidney cell carcinoma or real cell carcinoma.

In this type of cancer, which is the most common malignant tumor of the kidney, kidney cells become cancerous and malignant.

The types of kidney tumors are as follows:

  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Nephroblastoma
  • Sarcoma
  • TCC
  • clear cell carcinoma
  • clear cell renal cell carcinoma
  • papillary renal cell carcinoma
  • chromophobe renal cell carcinoma

 

Epidemiology

As we said, RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer tumors and it is interesting to know that this tumor is the seventh most common cancer in the developed world. Reliable statistics show that during the year 1919 alone, about 74,000 new cases of kidney tumors were diagnosed in the United States.

 

What are the signs and symptoms of kidney cancer?

The most common manifestations are as follows:

  • Hematuria :Doctors call the presence of blood in the urine hematuria.
  • Pain in the lower back
  • There is a lump on one side or lower back
  • Decreased appetite
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss for unknown reasons and without dietary restrictions
  • Prolonged fever means a fever that does not develop following an infection but still exists and does not go away despite the absence of infection in the body.
  • Anemia:

As we said because the kidney is responsible for making a hormone called erythropoietin and this hormone is responsible for stimulating the production of red blood cells. With kidney cancer, this amount of hormone decreases and the production of red blood cells decreases and the person becomes anemic.

In the following explanation, we must say that these signs and symptoms can be manifested due to the presence of kidney cancer tumors, but we must say that sometimes benign disorders and problems can cause blood in the urine, for example, due to a problem in the bladder or urinary tract infection or trauma or Kidney and urinary tract stones can also cause blood in the urine or hematuria.

However, we recommend that if you have one or more of the above symptoms and manifestations, it is better to consult a doctor so that the causes can be found and treatment can be done in a timely manner.

 

What causes kidney cancer?

In this section, we want to say what are the causes that can cause tumors and cancer in the kidney.

 

  • Obesity

People with higher body mass index are more likely to develop kidney cancer, so obesity is one of the reasons that can cause kidney cancer.

 

  • smoking

People who smoke have a very high risk of developing kidney tumors and, in fact, malignant kidney tumors.

 

  • family history

It is said that genetics and heredity may play a role in the development of kidney cancer.

It has been proven that people who have a close relative who has a kidney tumor have a higher risk of developing kidney cancer than the normal population. One of the genetic causes is von Hippel Lindau disease

  • Overuse of painkillers for a long time
  • And people with high blood pressure

 

How is kidney cancer treated?

There are currently several options for treating RCC kidney cancer as the most common malignant kidney tumor. In general, There are five standard types of cancer treatment that we will introduce to you in the following.

 

Sometimes one or both kidneys must be surgically removed to treat kidney cancer. Sometimes one kidney is enough to continue a person's normal life. If both kidneys are removed, different types of dialysis can be used so that the person can continue living.

If the cancer has not spread to the kidneys or other parts of the body, a kidney transplant may be possible.

If surgery is not performed in any way, doctors can cause a blockage in the renal artery

This procedure is called renal artery embolization and can kill the cancerous mass by cutting off blood flow. In this method, a special gelatin is injected into the artery of the kidney, this gelatin clogs the arteries and prevents blood supply and oxygen supply to the cancer cells, so the cancer cells die due to lack of nutrients and oxygen.

After surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may sometimes be needed to remove the remnants of the tumor.

When a person has a kidney tumor, high-energy X-rays are used to kill the growing and proliferating cancer cells.

Also a person who experiences chemotherapy With the help of prescribed drugs, his cancer cells are killed and they stop multiplying.

Sometimes new methods called immunotherapy are used to fight the tumor. In this method, compounds that are produced industrially in the body or in laboratories are used to restore the immune system of the affected person to its normal and defensive activity.

And increase its activity in defending and fighting cancer cells, or show a special activity in the target cells, and eventually destroy the cancer cells by the immune system itself. This treatment is sometimes called biotherapy.

There is another method called tomcat therapy in this method Compounds or drugs are used that can identify a malignant cell and carry it specifically. The characteristic of this method is that normal cells will not be damaged. In this method, special drugs are used to treat malignant kidney tumors, which will not allow the arteries to grow in the cancerous mass.

So the cancerous mass does not receive enough blood, it gradually shrinks and will eventually disappear.

 

Explanation of symptoms in kidney tumor

  1. The first sign of a side mass

Lumbar or abdominal lumps are seen in forty-five percent of people with malignant kidney tumors. Compared to the past, this sign is less seen as an early sign.

Any mass in this area, even if it is assumed to be one of the most common fat tumors that develop with age, must be examined by a doctor.

 

  1. The second sign of side pain

Forty percent of patients with malignant kidney tumors experience flank pain during their illness, but flank pain is less common as an early sign of the disorder.

Pain in the back, sides, or abdomen can be a mild pain or a sharp, throbbing pain. Note that trauma and injury should not have occurred in these cases.

 

  1. The third sign of blood in the urine

Hematuria is a common symptom in kidney tumors. At least 50% of people diagnosed with a kidney tumor have hematuria

The urine may not be completely bloody, it may just cause the pink color of the urine, or it may be microscopic in the blood.

 

  1. The fourth sign of unexplained weight loss

A common symptom in malignant kidney tumors is unexplained weight loss. About one-third of people lose weight at the time of diagnosis

 

That is, five percent or more of their body weight has been lost over a period of six to twelve months. Without a special diet or disease. In addition to kidney tumors, there are many other serious diseases that can occur with this symptom, for example, if a 90 kg man loses 5 kg in six months without changing his diet and exercising, it is considered unexpected or unintentional weight loss.

 

  1. The fifth sign of fatigue

One-third of people with kidney tumors experience fatigue. Cancer fatigue, unlike normal fatigue, is very deep. It gets worse over time with good rest and sleep at night with a cup of coffee does not improve at all.

 

  1. The sixth sign is lack of appetite

People often find that they are not hungry or that they may feel full when they eat. This is also a common symptom of kidney tumors.

 

  1. The seventh sign of cachexia

It is a syndrome characterized by loss of appetite, weight loss and loss of muscle mass. Thirty percent of people with kidney cancer also have the disorder.

It is the leading cause of death in about 20% of cancer patients.

 

  1. The eighth sign is swelling of the ankles and feet

Ankle sprains are one of the most common problems in kidney cancer and other serious kidney disorders. Fluid retention occurs due to kidney dysfunction and disturbance of the body's fluid and electrolyte balance, and ankle inflammation is one of its manifestations.

 

  1. The ninth sign is high blood pressure

The kidneys play an important role in regulating blood pressure, and persistent high blood pressure, which is also resistant to drugs, can be a sign of a kidney tumor. High blood pressure can also lead to more kidney damage.

 

  1. The tenth sign of hot flashes

It is accompanied by a feeling of warmth, even burning, which covers the face, neck and arms

And there are several reasons that cause hot flashes, including malignant tumors, and among these tumors, malignant tumors of the kidney.

 

What are the metastases of kidney cancer and what are its symptoms?

We said that it is possible for a kidney tumor to spread to other areas of the body

This encapsulation of the tumor is called metastasis and is very dangerous.

Symptoms of metastases are as follows: They occur in about 30% of people with kidney tumors, and it is estimated that more than 30% of people have metastases at the time of diagnosis. Kidney cancer spreads to the lungs, brain and bones and can be accompanied by the following symptoms:

 

  1. The first sign of coughing

Persistent cough is the most common sign of metastases, wheezing, bloody cough or chest pain, shoulder pain and back pain can also occur with lung involvement.

 

  1. The second sign of shortness of breath

Shortness of breath can occur following a malignant kidney tumor or due to secondary anemia following a kidney tumor.

 

  1. The third sign of bone pain

After the lungs, the bones are the second most common site of kidney cancer metastases. These pains are much more severe and are usually not associated with any injuries. Sometimes the first sign of a malignant kidney tumor can be a fracture in a weakened bone.

 

Other less common symptoms include:

  • Varicocele

It is a twisted vein that forms in the testicles. Swelling, pain, and shrinkage of the testicles may follow this complication. Most cases occur on the right side, and interestingly, varicocele associated with kidney tumors does not go away when lying down.

Other conditions are called paraneoplastic syndromes and they are a collection that is created because of the materials that are made by the tumor. For example, high blood calcium, nausea, vomiting, weakness, confusion, and changes in liver function tests, even when the tumor has not spread to the liver, are called paraneoplastic syndrome.

 

What are the complications of a malignant kidney tumor?

Most people do not experience all of the complications, and there are many who will not actually experience any of these. These complications most often occur when there is an advanced tumor. It may be due to the tumor itself or due to treatment or after metastasis. These include the following:

 

  • Pathological fractures

If metastasis has occurred in the bones, bone pain may be the first sign, and as malignant cells penetrate the bone, the bone becomes weak and prone to fracture with minimal or no damage. Doctors call these fractures pathological fractures.

 

  • Heart attacks and strokes

We said that anemia is common in advanced cases, but when the tumor is growing, it may produce a protein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells due to the production and proliferation of cancer cells. When red blood cells become too large, it can also increase the risk of blood clots, heart attacks and strokes.

 

  • Liver problems

Liver failure is another complication that can be caused by the spread of kidney cancer.

Hematuria

High blood pressure and high levels of calcium in the blood and an increase in the number of red blood cells

 

Concluding remarks

It is emphasized that if you observe one or more of the mentioned symptoms in yourself and those around you, you should know that it is very necessary to see a doctor.

Many of the symptoms of kidney cancer can be seen in other disorders, and there are other serious illnesses that can mimic these symptoms, so it is important to see a doctor in these cases.

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